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Summary

Animals have an immune system to fight off challenges from both viruses and bacteria. The first line of defence is innate immunity, which is composed of cells that engulf pathogens as well as cells that release potent signalling molecules to activate an inflammatory response and the adaptive immune system. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved a set of weapons, or effectors, to ensure survival in the host. Yersinia spp. use a type III secretion system to translocate these effector proteins, called Yops, into the host. This report outlines how Yops thwart the signalling machinery of the host immune system.