• intraocular pressure;
  • tonometry;
  • dog

Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by four different applanation tonometers in normal dogs. By MacKay-Marg tonometry in 391 dogs (772 eyes) the mean ± SD IOP was 18.8 ± 5.5 mmHg (range 8–52 mmHg). Using Tono-Pen XL tonometry in 421 dogs (823 eyes) the mean IOP was 19.2 ± 5.9 mmHg, and the range was 4.42 mmHg. With MMAC-II tonometry in 80 dogs (158 eyes), the mean IOP was 15.7 ± 2.8 mmHg with a range of 10–30 mmHg. By pneumatonograph tonometry in 135 dogs (255 eyes), the mean IOP was 22.9 ± 6.1 mmHg and the range was 10–47 mmHg. In this study 53 breeds were represented. Of those breeds with six animals or more, no significant differences were detected in IOP between breeds (P > 0.353) or sex (P > 0.270). There was a significant decline of 2–4 mmHg (P > 0.0001) in IOP as age increased from less than 2 years to greater than 6 years of age. This trend was present with all of the four tonometers. There were no significant differences between the MacKay-Marg and TonoPen-XL tonometers (P > 0.198), but significant differences with the MMAC-II (P > 0.001) and pneumatonograph (P > 0.001) tonometers existed compared to the first two instruments. Based on this study and the literature, the mean IOP for the normal dog is 19.0 mmHg with a range of 11 (5%) and 29 (95%) mmHg.