Towards simultaneous analysis of morphological and molecular data in Hymenoptera



Principles and methods of simultaneous analysis in cladistics are reviewed, and the first, preliminary, analysis of combined molecular and morphological data on higher level relationships in Hymenoptera is presented to exemplify these principles. The morphological data from Ronquist et al. (1999) matrix, derived from the character diagnoses of the phylogenetic tree of Rasnitsyn (1988), are combined with new molecular data for representatives of 10 superfamilies of Hymenoptera by means of optimization alignment. The resulting cladogram supports Apocrita and Aculeata as groups, and the superfamly Chrysidoidea, but not Chalcidoidea, Evanioidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea.