SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Chamberlain J, Melia J, Moss S, Brown J. Report prepared for the Health Technology Assessment Panel of the NHS Executive on the diagnosis, management, treatment and costs of prostate cancer in England and Wales. Br J Urol 1997; 79(suppl 3)
  • 2
    Labrie F, Dupont A, Candas B et al. Decrease of prostate cancer death by screening: first data from the Quebec prospective and randomised study. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998; 318: 1626
  • 3
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Screening for prostate cancer . Effectiveness Matters. 1997;2(2)
  • 4
    Alexander F, Boyle PThe rise in prostate cancer. Myth or reality. In Garraway WM, ed. Epidemiology of Prostate Disease. Edinburgh: Springer-Verlag1995; 192201
  • 5
    Merrill RM, Potosky AL, Feuer EJ. Changing trends in US prostate cancer incidence rates. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 16835
  • 6
    Gilliland FD, Welsh DJ, Hoffman RM, Key CR. Rapid rise and decline in prostate cancer incidence rates for New Mexico 1988–93. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994; 4: 797800
  • 7
    Murray CL. re: The fall in incidence of prostate carcinoma on the down side of a prostate specific antigen induced peak in incidence—data from the Utah Cancer Registry. Cancer 1997; 79: 1889
  • 8
    Newcomer LM, Stanford JL, Blumenstein BA, Brawer MK. Temporal trends in rates of prostate cancer: declining incidence of advanced stage disease 1974–94. J Urol 1997; 158: 142730
  • 9
    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Basler JW. Detection of organ confined prostate cancer is increased through prostate specific antigen based screening. JAMA 1993; 270: 94854
  • 10
    Stephenson RA, Smart CR, Mineau GP et al. The fall in incidence of prostate carcinoma; on the down side of a prostate specific antigen induced peak in incidence. Data from the Utah Cancer Registry. Cancer 1996; 77: 13428
  • 11
    Soloway MSControversies in the management of clinically localised prostate cancer. In Belldegrun A, Kirby RS, Oliver RTD, eds, New Perspectives in Prostate Cancer. Oxford: Isis Medical1998; 20510
  • 12
    Ries LAG, Miller BA, Hankey BF et al. SEER cancer statistics review; Tables and Graphs, 1973–91 Report NIH 94–2789. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda Maryland 1994
  • 13
    Lu-Yao GL, Yao S-L. Population-based study of long-term survival in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer. Lancet 1997; 349: 90610
  • 14
    Prostate Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group. Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of 22 randomised trials with 3283 deaths in 5710 patients. Lancet 1995; 346: 2659
  • 15
    Medical Research Council Prostate Working Party Investigators Group. Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer: initial results of the Medical Research Council Trial. Br J Urol 1997; 79: 23546
  • 16
    Bolla M, Gonzalez D, Ward P et al. Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. New Eng J Med 1997; 337: 295300
  • 17
    Pilepich MV, Caplin R, Byhardt RW et al. Phase III trial of androgen suppression using goserelin in unfavourable-prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy: report of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 85–31. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 1013102
  • 18
    Brawer MK, Chetner MP, Beatie J et al. Screening for prostatic carcinoma with prostate specific antigen. J Urol 1992; 147: 8415
  • 19
    Faul PExperience with the German annual check up examination. In Jacobi GH, Hoffenfell R, eds, Prostate Cancer. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins1993; 5770
  • 20
    Mettlin C, Lee F, Murphy GP. The American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project: findings on the detection of early prostate cancer in 2425 men. Cancer 1991; 67: 294958
  • 21
    Petros JA, Andriole GL. Serum PSA after antiandrogen therapy. Urol Clin N 1993; 20: 74956
  • 22
    Benson MC, Ehang IS, Pantuck A et al. Prostate specific antigen density: a means of distinguishing benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. J Urol 1992; 147: 81521
  • 23
    Shinohara K, Wolf JsJr, Narayan P et al. Comparison of prostate specific antigen with prostate specific antigen density for three clinical applications. J Urol 1994; 152: 1203
  • 24
    Brawer MK, Aramburu EAG, Chen GL et al. The inability of prostate specific antigen index to enhance the predictive value of prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis of carcinoma. J Urol 1993; 150: 36973
  • 25
    Mettlin C, Littrup P, Kane RA. Relative sensitivity and specificity of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level compared with age reference PSA, PSA density and PSA change. Cancer 1994; 74: 161520
  • 26
    Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter JE et al. Longitudinal evaluation of prostate specific antigen levels in men with and without prostate disease. JAMA 1992; 267: 221520
  • 27
    Ruckle HC, Klee GG, Oesterling JE. Prostate specific antigen concepts for staging prostate cancer and monitoring response to therapy. Mayo Clin 1994; 69: 6979
  • 28
    Oesterling JE, Jacobson SJ, Chute CG et al. Serum prostate specific antigen in a community based population of healthy men: establishment of age specific reference ranges. JAMA 1993; 270: 8606
  • 29
    Oesterling JE, Cooner WH, Jacobson SJ et al. Influence of patient age on the serum PSA concentration. An important clinical observation. Urol Clin North Am 1993; 20: 67180
  • 30
    Rabrani F, Stroumbakis N, Kaya BR, Cookson MS, Fair W. Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostatic biopsies. J Urol 1998; 159: 124750
  • 31
    Stenman U, Leinonen J, Alfthan H, Rannikko S, Tuhkanen K, Alfthan O. A complex between prostate specific antigen and alpha 1–anti-chymotrypsin is a major form of prostate specific antigen in serum of patients with prostatic cancer: assay of the complex improved clinical sensitivity for cancer. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 226
  • 32
    Christensson A, Bjork T, Nilsson O. Serum prostate specific antigen complexed to alpha 1 anti-chymotrypsin as an indicator of prostatic cancer. J Urol 1993; 150: 1005
  • 33
    Lee F, Torp-Pedersen ST, Siders DP, Littrup PJ, McLeary RD. Transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of prostatic carcinoma. Radiology 1989; 170: 60915
  • 34
    Sanders H, El-Galley R. Ultrasound findings are not useful for defining stage T1c prostate cancer. World 1997; 15: 3368
  • 35
    Palken M, Cobb OE, Simons CE, Warren BH, Aldape HC. Prostate cancer: comparison of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound for screening. J Urol 1991; 145: 8692
  • 36
    Djavan B, Kadesky K, Klopuckh B et al. Gleason scores from prostate biopsies obtained with 18 gauge needles poorly predict Gleason scores of radical prostatectomy specimens. Eur Urol 1998; 33: 26170
  • 37
    Chodak GW, Thisted RA, Gerber GS et al. Results of conservative management of clinically localised prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 2428
  • 38
    Esposti PL, Elman A, Norlen H. Complications of transrectal aspiration biopsy of the prostate. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1975; 9: 20813
  • 39
    Brewster SF, Rooney N, Kabala J, Feneley RCL. Fatal anaerobic infection following transrectal biopsy of a rare prostatic tumour. Br J Urol 1993; 72: 9778
  • 40
    Kirby RS, Kirby MG, Feneley MR et al. Screening for prostate cancer: a GP based study. Br J Urol 1994; 74: 6471
  • 41
    Andriole GL, Catalona WJThe case for aggressive diagnosis and treatment of localised prostate cancer. In Raghaven D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, Lange PH, eds, Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven1997; 45764
  • 42
    Smith DS, Catalona WJ. The nature of prostate cancer detected through prostate specific antigen based screening. J Urol 1994; 152: 17326
  • 43
    Schroder FH, Bangma CH. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Br J Urol 1997; 79: 6871
  • 44
    Chadwick DJ, Kemple T, Astley JP et al. Pilot trial of screening for prostate cancer in general practice. Lancet 1991; 338: 6136
  • 45
    Abbasi K. Medicine and the media: to screen or not to screen? Br Med J 1998; 316: 484
  • 46
    Woolf SH. Should we screen for prostate cancer? Men over 50 have a right to decide for themselves. Br Med J 1997; 314: 98990
  • 47
    Flemming C, Wasson JH, Albertsen PC et al. A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for localised prostate cancer. JAMA 1993; 269: 26508
  • 48
    Eeles RA, Dearnaley DP, Ardeern-Jones A et al. Familial prostate cancer: the evidence and the Cancer Research Campaign/British Prostate Group (CRC/BPG) UK familial prostate cancer study. Br J Urol 1997; 79: 814
  • 49
    Morton RA. Racial differences in adenocarcinoma of the prostate in North American men. Urology 1994; 44: 63745
  • 50
    Simpson C, Kirk D, Speakman M, Eardley I, Simpson R. A survey of prostate specific clinics and urology. Scottish Med 1998; 17: 45
  • 51
    Anon. Guidelines on management of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggesting bladder outflow obstruction. Ann Roy Coll Surg (Suppl.) January 1997
  • 52 Prostate Forum. Prostate disease management survey
    1998; unpublished
  • 53
    Dearnaley DP, Melia J. Early prostate cancer—to treat or not to treat. Lancet 1997; 349: 8923
  • 54
    Emberton M, Neal DE, Black N et al. The National Prostatectomy Audit: the clinical management of patients during hospital admission. Br J Urol 1995; 75: 30116
  • 55
    Adolfsson J, Austenfield M, Thompson IThe case for conservative therapy for localised prostate cancer. In Raghaven D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, Lange PH, eds, Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven,1997; 46572
  • 56
    Pound CR, Walsh PC, Epstein JI, Chan DW, Partin AW. Radical prostatectomy as treatment for prostate specific antigen detected stage T1c prostate cancer. World J Urol 1997; 15: 3737
  • 57
    Millar CJPathology of the palpable prostate cancer. In Raghaven D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, Lange PH, eds, Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven,1997; 395401
  • 58
    Droller MJRadical retropubic prostatectomy: technique for potency and continence preservation. In Fitzpatrick JM, Krane RJ, eds, The Prostate Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone,1989; 34758
  • 59
    Dearnaley DThe way ahead for radiotherapy in prostate cancer. In Belldegrun A, Kirby RS, Oliver RTD, eds, New Perspectives in Prostate Cancer. Oxford: Isis Medical1998; 121526
  • 60 NHS R&D Health Technology Assessment Programme 96/20. Screening for prostate cancer.
    1997
  • 61
    Bangma CH, Kranse R, Blijenberg BG, Schröder FH. Free and total prostate-specific antigen in a screened population Br J Urol 1997; 79: 75662
  • 62
    Pannek J, Rittenhouse HG, Chan DW, Epstein JI, Walsh PC, Partin AW. The use of percent free prostate specific antigen for staging clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol 1998; 159: 123842