• 1
    Delahunt B. Histopathologic prognostic indicators for renal cell carcinoma. Sem Diag Pathol 1998; 15: 6876
  • 2
    Gelb AB. Renal cell carcinoma: current prognostic factors. Cancer 1997; 80: 9816
  • 3
    Lanigan D. Prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Urol 1995; 75: 56571
  • 4
    Sobin LH, Wittekind C eds. International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours 5th edn. New York: Wiley-Liss Publications, 1997
  • 5
    Van Poppel H, Vandendriessche H, Boel K et al. Microscopic vascular invasion is the most relevant prognosticator after radical nephrectomy for clinically nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 1997; 158: 459
  • 6
    Kovacs G, Akhtar M, Beckwith BJ et al. The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours. J Pathol 1997; 183: 1313
  • 7
    Fuhrman SA, Lasky LC, Limas C. Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 65563
  • 8
    Eble JN. Recommendations for examining and reporting tumor-bearing kidney specimens from adults. Sem Diag Pathol 1998; 15: 7782
  • 9
    Tsui KH, Shvarts O, Smith RB, Figlin R, DeKernion JB, Belldegrun A. Renal cell carcinoma: Prognostic significance of incidentally detected tumors. J Urol 2000; 163: 42630
  • 10
    Luciani LG, Cestai R, Tallarigo C. Incidental renal cell carcinoma – age and stage characterization and clinical implications. Urology 2000; 56: 5862
  • 11
    Samma S, Yoshida K, Ozono S et al. Tumor thrombus and microvascular invasion as prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1991; 21: 3405
  • 12
    Mrstik C, Salamon J, Weber R, Stogermayer F. Microscopic venous infiltration as predictor of relapse in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 1992; 148: 2714
  • 13
    Bonsib SM, Gibson D, Mhoon M, Greene GF. Renal sinus involvement in renal cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24: 4518DOI: 10.1097/00000478-200003000-00015


  1. Authors

D.F.R. Griffiths, MB BCh, MRCP, FRCPath, Senior Lecturer in Pathology.

A. Verghese, MBBS, MDPath, MRCPath, Consultant in Histopathology.

A. Golash.

H.G. Kynaston, MDChB, FRCS(Urol), Consultant Urologist.

P.N. Matthews, FRCS, Consultant Urologist.

A.J.L. Hart, FRCS(ED), FRCS, Consultant Urologist.

J.B. Court, PGD, Principal Clinical Scientist.


inferior vena cava invasion


microscopic vascular invasion


renal vein invasion.