• 1
    Santos DR. Chá de Quebre-Pedra (Phyllanthus niruri) na litíase urinária em humanos e ratos. PhD Thesis. Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sa˜o Paulo, 1990
  • 2
    Worcester EM. Inhibitors of stone formation. Sem Nephrol 1996; 16: 47486
  • 3
    Coelho STNS. Litíase experimental sistematizaça˜o do modelo em corpo estranho estudado em ratos. MS Thesis. Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sa˜o Paulo, 1989
  • 4
    Meyer JL, Smith LH. Growth of calcium oxalate crystals. I. A model for urinary stone growth. Invest Urol 1977; 13: 315
  • 5
    Pfeffer JM, Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED. Validity of an indirect tail-cuff method for determining systolic arterial pressure in unanesthetized normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Lab Clin Med 1971; 78: 95762
  • 6
    Michelacci YM, Glashan RQ, Schor N. Urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in normal and stone forming subjects. Kidney Int 1989; 36: 10228
  • 7
    Michelacci YM, Boim MA, Bergamaschi CT, Rovigatti RM, Schor N. Possible role for chondroitin sulfate in urolithiasis: in vivo studies in an experimental model. Clin Chim Acta 1992; 208: 18
  • 8
    Unander DW, Webster GL, Blumberg BS. Usage and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae). III. The subgenera Eriocos, Conami, Gomphidium, Botryanthus, Xylphylla and Phylanthodendrum, and a complete list of the species cited in the three part series. J Ethnopharmacol 1992; 36: 10312
  • 9
    Hnatyszyn O, Mino J, Gorzalczany S, Opezzo J, Coussio J, Acevedo C. Diuretic activity of an aqueous extract of Phyllanthus sellowianus. Phytomed 1999; 6: 1779
  • 10
    Laranja SMR, Bergamaschi CMT, Schor N. Evaluation of acute administration of natural products with potential diuretic effects, in humans. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 38: 136
  • 11
    Calixto JB, Yunes RA, Neto AS, Valle RM, Rae GA. Antispasmodic effects of an alkaloid extracted from Phyllanthus sellowianus: a comparative study with papaverine. Braz J Med Biol Res 1984; 17: 31321
  • 12
    Paulino NM, Cechinel-Filho V, Yunes RA, Calixto JB. The relaxant effect of extract of Phyllanthus urinaria in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. Evidence for involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Pharm Phamacol 1996; 48: 115863
  • 13
    Paulino N, Pizollattiu MG, Yunes RA, Filho VC, Creczynski-Pasa TB, Calixto JB. The mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of methyl and ethyl gallates in the guinea-pig trachea in vitro: contribution of potassium channels. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1999; 360: 3316
  • 14
    Santos AR, Filho VC, Yunes RA, Calixto JB. Analyses of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of the plants from the genus Phyllanthus. Gen Pharmacol 1995; 26: 1499506
  • 15
    Santos AR, Filho VC, Niero R et al. Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994; 46: 7559
  • 16
    Hurst RE, Zebrowski R. Identification of proteoglycans present at high density on bovine and human bladder luminal surface. J Urol 1994; 152: 16415
  • 17
    Akcay T, Konukoglu D. Glycosaminoglycans excretion in interstitial cystitis. Int J Nephrol 1999; 31: 4315
  • 18
    Ryall RL. Glycosaminoglycans, proteins, and stone formation: adult themes and child's play. Pediatr Nephrol 1996; 10: 65666
  • 19
    Shum DKY, Gohel MDI. Separate effects of urinary chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate upon the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate – differences between stone formers and natural controls. Clin Sci 1993; 85: 339
  • 20
    Suzuki K, Ryall RL. The effect of heparan sulphate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in diluted, ultrafiltered human urine. Br J Urol 1996; 78: 1521
  • 21
    Osswald H, Weinheimer G, Schutt D et al. Effective prevention of calcium oxalate crystal formation in vitro and in vivo by pentosan polysulfate. In WalkerVR, SuttonRAL, CameronECB, PakCYC, RobertsonWG eds, Urolithiasis. New York: Plenum Press, 1989: 1414
  • 22
    Ryall RL, Hamett RM, Habbert CM, Edyne KA, Marshall VR. Effects on chondroitin sulfate, human serum albumin and Tamm-Horsfall, mucoprotein on calcium oxalate crystallization in undiluted human urine. Urol Res 1991; 19: 1818
  • 23
    Campos AH, Schor N. Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis. Nephron 1999; 895: 3937
  • 24
    Khan SR. Interactions between stone-forming calcific crystals and macromolecules. Urol Int 1997; 59: 5971


  1. Authors

A.M. Freitas, MS, PhD student.

N. Schor, MD, PhD, Full Professor.

M.A. Boim, PhD, Associate Researcher.


Phyllanthus niruri


calcium oxalate




mean arterial tail pressure.