Authors may use the abbreviations in this list, without definition when within the main text, but defined when in the Summary. Other abbreviations must be defined on first mention, both in the Summary and in the main text. Abbreviations of units should be those defined by SI.

AIDS  acquired immune deficiency syndrome

ANOVA    analysis of variance

AUA  American Urological Association

BAUS  British Association of Urological Surgeons

BCG  bacille Calmette-Guérin

BPH  benign prostatic hyperplasia

BSA  bovine serum albumin

BOO  bladder outlet obstruction

CI  confidence interval

CNS  central nervous system

CT  computed tomography

DMSA  dimercapto-succinic acid

DRE  digital rectal examination

DTPA  diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid

EDTA  ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid

ELISA  enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESWL  extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

FSH  follicle-stimulating hormone

GFR  glomerular filtration rate

GnRH  gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

GP  general practitioner

hCG  human chorionic gonadotrophin

HIV  human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC  high-pressure liquid chromatography

ICS  higInternational Continence Society

IGF  insulin-like growth factor

IgXz  immunoglobulin (class X, subclass z)

IPSS  International Prostate Symptom Score

IVU  intravenous urography

LHRH  luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

LUTS  lower urinary tract symptoms

MAG  mercapto-acetylglycine

MAG3  mercapto-acetyltriglycine

MHC  major histocompatibility complex

MRI  magnetic resonance imaging

NHS  National Health Service

NSAIDs  nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAGE  polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PBS  phosphate buffered saline

PCR  polymerase chain reaction

PSA  prostate-specific antigen

PTFE  polytetrafluoroethylene

PUJ  pelvi-ureteric junction

PUV  posterior urethral valves

RCC  renal cell carcinoma

SD    standard deviation

SDS  sodium dodecyl sulphate

TCC  transitional cell carcinoma

TGF  transforming growth factor

TNF  tumour necrosis factor

TNM  Tumour-Node-Metastasis

TRUS  transrectal ultrasonography

TURP  transurethral resection of the prostate

UTI  Urinary tract infection

VUR  vesico-ureteric reflux

WHO  World Health Organization