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Keywords:

  • elderly;
  • nocturia;
  • epidemiology;
  • comorbidity

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the association between nocturia and selected concomitant diseases and medications in a community-dwelling elderly population.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Data were obtained with a validated questionnaire mailed to all inhabitants aged ≥ 65 years in Tierp, Sweden. Descriptive statistics on age, gender, concomitant diseases and medications were calculated for non-nocturics (subjects reporting a mean of < 1 void/night), intermediate (reporting a mean of 1–2 voids/night) and nocturics (reporting a mean of ≥ 2 voids/night). Correlations between the number of nocturnal voids/week and concomitant diseases/medications were investigated with logistic regression, controlling for age and gender.

RESULTS

Of the 4264 questionnaires sent, 67% (2866) were returned, of which 73% (2081) were fully evaluable on nocturia and incorporated in the analysis. Of these, 62% reported ≥ 1 void/night and 29%≥ 2 voids/night. The median (range) age of the respondents was 74 (65–99) years. The prevalence of nocturia increased with age and men reported more nocturia than women. The nocturic group had the highest percentage of reported disease and medication on each question. In the logistic regression, controlling for age and gender, there was no significant correlation between the number of nocturnal voids and hypertension, angina pectoris or diabetes mellitus, nor with treatment of these diseases. Neither was there any correlation for congestive heart failure, snoring, use of diuretics or hypnotics. There were highly statistically significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the increase in number of nocturnal voids and incontinence, daytime urge and nocturnal thirst. The increase in number of nocturnal voids was negatively correlated with good sleep and with feeling in good health (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION

There was no correlation between the number of nocturnal voids and a known and treated hypertension, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or diabetes mellitus. The number of nocturnal voids was highly correlated with urge and incontinence.