SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn 2002; 21: 16778
  • 2
    Nilvebrant L. The mechanism of action of tolterodine. Rev Contemp Pharmacother 2000; 11: 1327
  • 3
    Abrams P, Freeman R, Anderstrom C, Mattiasson A. Tolterodine, a new antimuscarinic agent: as effective but better tolerated than oxybutynin in patients with an overactive bladder. Br J Urol 1998; 81: 80110
  • 4
    Drutz HP, Appell RA, Gleason D, Klimberg I, Radomski S. Clinical efficacy and safety of tolterodine compared to oxybutynin and placebo in patients with overactive bladder. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1999; 10: 2839
  • 5
    Malone-Lee J, Shaffu B, Anand C, Powell C. Tolterodine: superior tolerability and comparable efficacy to oxybutynin in individuals 50 years old or older with overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol 2001; 165: 14526
  • 6
    Lee JG, Hong JY, Choo M-S et al. Tolterodine: as effective but better tolerated than oxybutynin in Asian patients with symptoms of overactive bladder. Int J Urol 2002; 9: 24752
  • 7
    Kelleher CJ, Cardozo LD, Khullar V, Salvatore S. A medium-term analysis of the subjective efficacy of treatment for women with detrusor instability and low bladder compliance. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 98893
  • 8
    Grossklaus DJ, Franke JJ. Treatment of elderly women with urge incontinence in Middle Tennessee: a single institution practice-based study. Tenn Med 2000; 93: 45760
  • 9
    Van Kerrebroeck P, Kreder K, Jonas U, Zinner N, Wein A. Tolterodine Study Group. Tolterodine once-daily: superior efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of the overactive bladder. Urology 2001; 57: 41421
  • 10
    Rovner ES, Wein AJ. Once-daily, extended-release formulations of antimuscarinic agents in the treatment of overactive bladder: a review. Eur Urol 2002; 41: 614
  • 11
    Lapitan MC, Chye PL. Asia-Pacific Continence Advisory Board. The epidemiology of overactive bladder among females in Asia: a questionnaire survey. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2001; 12: 22631
  • 12
    Moorthy P, Lapitan MC, Lim PHC. Prevalence of overactive bladder in Asian males. International Continence Society. Seoul, Korea 2001 http://www.continet.org
  • 13
    Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Prevalence, incidence, and awareness in the treatment of menopausal urinary incontinence. Maturitas 1999; 33: 12732
  • 14
    Ueda T, Tamaki M, Kageyama S, Yoshimura N, Yoshida O. Urinary incontinence among community-dwelling people aged 40 years or older in Japan: prevalence, risk factors, knowledge and self-perception. Int J Urol 2000; 7: 95103
  • 15
    Luna MT, Hirakawa T, Nakano H. Urinary incontinence in women seen in the obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2000; 11: 27781
  • 16
    Homma Y, Gotoh M, Ando T, Fukuhara S. Development of Japanese version of QOL questionnaires for urinary incontinence. Jpn J Neurogenic Bladder 1999; 10: 22536
  • 17
    Sussman D, Garely A. Treatment of overactive bladder with once-daily extended-release tolterodine or oxybutynin: the Antimuscarinic Clinical Effectiveness Trial (ACET). Curr Med Res Opin 2002; 18: 17784
  • 18
    Chapple CR, Nilvebrant L. Tolterodine: selectivity for the urinary bladder over the eye (as measured by visual accommodation) in healthy volunteers. Drugs R&D 2002; 3: 7581
  • 19
    Abrams P, Kelleher CJ, Kerr LA, Rogers RG. Overactive bladder significantly affects quality of life. Am J Manag Care 2000; 6 (Suppl. 11): S58090
  • 20
    Liberman JN, Hunt TL, Stewart WF et al. Health-related quality of life among adults with symptoms of overactive bladder: results from a U.S. community-based survey. Urology 2001; 57: 104450
  • 21
    Kobelt G, Kirchberger I, Malone-Lee J. Quality-of-life aspects of the overactive bladder and the effect of treatment with tolterodine. BJU Int 1999; 83: 58390

EDITORIAL COMMENT

The results in this report are relevant only in those countries in which the once-daily form of oxybutynin is unavailable. The once-daily form, because of less first-pass liver metabolism, has fewer side-effects than the immediate-release form, and represents the ‘reference standard’ of oral oxybutynin therapy [1]. Noteworthy in this article are: (i) the lack of any significant difference in efficacy variables between the active drugs; (ii) the presence of a difference in side-effect profile (dry mouth particularly); and (iii) the relatively small difference in efficacy variables between both active drugs and placebo, yet accounting for significant differences in quality of life. There is now a published direct comparison of the once-daily oral forms of tolterodine and oxybutynin [2]. Although both relieve symptoms and have fewer side-effects than the once-daily counterparts, it is clear that newer forms of pharmacological therapy, directed either at inhibiting cholinergic activation of the detrusor with greater efficacy and/or tolerability, or at inhibiting different motor or sensory mechanisms, would be welcome for the treatment of OAB.

A.J. WEIN, MD, Professor & Chair, Division of Urology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  • 1
    Wein AJ. Neuromuscular dysfunction of the lower urinary tract and its treatment. In WalshP, RetikA, VaughanED Jr, WeinAJ eds, Campbell's Urology. Eighth Edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2002: 93166
  • 2
    Diokno AC, Appell RA, Sand PK et al. for the OPERA Study Group. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerability of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine for overactive bladder: results of the OPERA Trial. Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78: 68795