• retrograde ureterography;
  • ureteric stent;
  • flexible cystoscopy;
  • local anaesthesia;
  • sedoanalgesia

Objective To evaluate a new method for retrograde ureteropyelography and retrograde ureteric stent placement.

Patients and methods Procedures were undertaken using a flexible cystoscope and digital C-arm fluoroscopy in outpatients under sedoanalgesia. The flexible cystoscope was used to identify the ureteric orifice and a straight 0.9 mm hydrophilic guidewire inserted and passed into the renal pelvis under fluoroscopic guidance. A 4 F general-purpose catheter was then passed over the wire and ureteropyelography performed. To place the stent the hydrophilic guidewire was exchanged for an ultra-stiff wire, over which the stent was passed directly.

Results Over a 47-month period, 723 procedures were carried out in 472 patients. The clinical indications were ureteric obstruction in 229 (32%), stone disease in 165 (23%), unexplained hydronephrosis in 150 (21%), haematuria in 94 (13%) and others in 85 (12%). Of the 723 procedures, 643 (89%) were technically successful. Failure was most commonly caused by failure to cannulate the ureteric orifice (51, 7%). Just over half the procedures (366, 51%) involved stent placement or replacement. Immediate complications occurred in 17 patients (3%). Of those who were questioned, 94% (282 of 300) reported the procedure to be acceptable.

Conclusion Retrograde ureterography and ureteric stent placement may be satisfactorily undertaken with the patient under sedoanalgesia on an outpatient basis. This technique can reduce costs, hospital admissions, general anaesthetic use, demands on theatre time and complication rates.