Results of this study have been presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), September 1998, Barcelona, Spain.
Relative hypoleptinaemia in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus
Article first published online: 24 DEC 2001
Volume 16, Issue 8, pages 656–662, August 1999
How to Cite
Festa, A., Shnawa, N., Krugluger, W., Hopmeier, P., Schernthaner, G. and Haffner, S. M. (1999), Relative hypoleptinaemia in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine, 16: 656–662. doi: 10.1046/j.1464-5491.1999.00122.x
- Issue published online: 24 DEC 2001
- Article first published online: 24 DEC 2001
- Received 2 October 1998; revised 8 March 1999; accepted 14 March 1999
- gestational diabetes mellitus;
Aims There is increasing evidence suggesting that leptin plays a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, as well as in the neuroendocrine and reproductive systems. Leptin is synthesized in the human placenta. The aim of this study was to relate serum leptin levels during pregnancy to glucose tolerance, body mass index (BMI) and specific metabolic variables, such as specific insulin and proinsulin.
Methods A 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 221 pregnant women at 22–29 weeks of gestation (median 25th week). Serum leptin was measured using a radioimmunoassay. In 49 women, sequential leptin measurements were performed (during pregnancy and post partum (median 5 months)).
Results During pregnancy serum leptin was significantly related to body weight (r = 0.49), BMI (r = 0.51), fasting immunoreactive insulin (r = 0.46), specific insulin (r = 0.43) and proinsulin (r = 0.29) (all P-values < 0.0001). In women with mild gestational diabetes (GDM, n = 55), leptin levels were lower compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 166) after adjusting for BMI and fasting insulin (26.9 vs. 19.4 ng/ml, P = 0.0001). Leptin was significantly higher during pregnancy compared to post partum (mean ± se: 24.3 ± 1.5 vs. 19.6 ± 1.6 ng/ml, P = 0.0003), even after adjustment for changes in BMI and changes in fasting insulin (P = 0.013).
Conclusions Leptin levels are elevated in pregnancy. Women with mild GDM presented with relative hypoleptinaemia compared to women with normal glucose tolerance.