• stomach;
  • gastric emptying;
  • autonomic neuropathy;
  • symptoms;
  • glycaemic control;
  • diagnosis;
  • therapy


The outcome of recent studies has led to redefinition of concepts relating to the prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical significance of disordered gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus. The use of scintigraphic techniques has established that gastric emptying is abnormally slow in approx. 30–50% of outpatients with long-standing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, although the magnitude of this delay is modest in many cases. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms occur frequently and affect quality of life adversely in patients with diabetes, although the relationship between symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is weak. Acute changes in blood glucose concentration affect both gastric motor function and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric emptying is slower during hyperglycaemia when compared with euglycaemia and accelerated during hypoglycaemia. The blood glucose concentration may influence the response to prokinetic drugs. Conversely, the rate of gastric emptying is a major determinant of post-prandial glycaemic excursions in healthy subjects, as well as in Type 1 and Type 2 patients. A number of therapies currently in development are designed to improve post-prandial glycaemic control by modulating the rate of delivery of nutrients to the small intestine.