This survey of the literature on the ecological effects of roads and traffic revealed many articles published over many years in peer reviewed journals. There has also been a growing number of reports on the ecological effects of roads produced by government authorities. Whereas few reports have been published on assessing the ecological impacts, there has been a rapidly growing number of reports on methods for mitigation. Gaps in research include the effects of heavy metal accumulation and the processes and effects resulting from habitat fragmentation. There is a need to assess the effectiveness of underpasses and tunnels and the nature and functioning of buffer zones. A literature database has been assembled and is being updated.