•  ingroup bias;
  • ethnocentrism;
  • Sumner

This study collapsed ingroup bias into two types: a classic Sumnerian type, in which favorable perceptions of the ingroup were linked to unfavorable perceptions of the outgroup, and a simple ingroup bias type that consisted of all other instances of ingroup superiority. Simple ingroup bias was the more common type among a General Social Survey (GSS) national probability sample of 1,119 non-Jewish whites who rated Jews, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics on five traits. The two types appear to represent different points on an ethnocentrism continuum; thus, researchers who do not distinguish between them may underestimate the possible impact of ethnocentrism. The generally low levels of classic ethnocentrism did increase for people low in education or high in authoritarianism or social distance. The research also tested an ethnocentrism typology. Many respondents fell into two nonclassic ethnocentrism categories: positivity (where own-group and other-group ratings are both favorable) and neutral matching.