• 1
    WHO. Hepatitis B. Fact Sheet. WHO/. http://www.who.International/inf-fs/en/fact204.html.
  • 2
    UNAIDS Report of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic 2002.
  • 3
    Sinicco A, Raiteri R, Sciandra M et al. Co-infection and superinfection of hepatitis B virus in patients infected with immunodeficiency virus: no evidence for faster progression to AIDS. Scand J Infect Dis 1997, 204 October 2000; 29: 111115.
  • 4
    Beck EJ, Mandalia S, Leonard K Case-control study of sexually transmitted diseases as cofactors for HIV-1 transmission. Int J STD AIDS 1996; 7: 3438.
  • 5
    Ahmed SD, Cuevas LE, Brabin BJ et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C and HIV in Malawian pregnant women. J Infect 1998; 37: 248251.
  • 6
    Combe P, La Ruche G, Bonard D et al. Hepatitis B and C infections, human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections among women of childbearing age in Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 2001; 95: 493496.
  • 7
    PHLS AIDS Centre and Scottish Centre for Infection. AIDS/HIV Quarterly Surveillance Tables, No. 55: 02/2 Jul 2002.
  • 8
    Opravil M, Hunziker R, Luthy R et al. Chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV infected patients. Dtsche Med Wochenschr 1998; 123: 753760.
  • 9
    Gilson RJ, Hawkins AE, Beecham MR et al. Interactions between HIV and hepatitis B virus in homosexual men: effects on the natural history of infection. AIDS 1997; 11: 597606.
  • 10
    Colin JF, Cazals–Hatem D, Loriot MA et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatol 1999; 29: 13061310.
  • 11
    Puoti M, Spinetti A, Ghezzi A et al. Mortality for liver disease in patients with HIV infection: a cohort study. J AIDS 2000; 24: 211217.
  • 12
    Martin-Carbonero L, Soriano V, Valencia E et al. Increased impact of chronic viral hepatitis on hospital admissions and mortality among HIV-infected patients. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirol 2001; 17: 14671471.
  • 13
    Aceti A, Pasquazzi C, Zechini B et al. Hepatotoxicity development during antiretroviral therapy containing protease inhibitors in patients with HIV. The role of hepatitis B and C. J AIDS 2002; 29: 4148.
  • 14
    Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL, Mehta SH et al. Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: role of hepatitis C and B infections. Hepatology 2002; 35: 182189.
  • 15
    Atfield M, Rockstroh JK, Addo M et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B in a long-term anti-HBs-positive patient with AIDS following lamivudine withdrawal. J Hepatol 1998; 29: 306309.
  • 16
    Manegold C, Hannoun C, Wywiol A et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication accompanied by acute hepatitis in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 144148.
  • 17
    Hofer M, Joller-Jemelka HI, Grob PJ et al. Frequent chronic hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen only. Swiss cohort study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998; 17: 613.
  • 18
    Mai AL, Yim C, O'Rourke K et al. The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection in homosexual men. J Clin Gastroenterol 1996; 22: 299304.
  • 19
    Piroth L, Grappin M, Buisson M et al. Hepatitis B seroconversion in HIV-HBV coinfected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J AIDS Hum Retrovirol 2000; 23: 356357.
  • 20
    Rey D, Krantz V, Partisani M et al. Increasing the number of hepatitis B injections augments anti-HBs response rate in HIV-infected patients. Effect on viral load. Vaccine 2000; 18: 11611165.
  • 21
    European consensus group on hepatitis B. immunity. Are booster immunisations needed for lifelong hepatitis B immunity? Lancet 2000; 355: 561565.
  • 22
    Yoon C et al. Comparison of the efficacy of hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccination in HIV infected patients. 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 9–12 July 2002; Abstract MoPeB3156.
  • 23
    Toyoda H, Fukuda Y, Nakano I et al. Fatal liver failure in haemophiliacs with HIV-induced immunodeficiency: observation of six patients. Haemophilia 1999, 2002; 5: 109114.
  • 24
    Lok A, McMahon BJ. Practice Guidelines Committee, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2001; 34: 12251239.
  • 25
    Chevillotte G, Durbec JP, Gerolami A et al. Interaction between hepatitis B virus and alcoholic consumption in liver cirrhosis: an epidemiological study. Gastroenterology 1983; 85: 141145.
  • 26
    McMahon BJ, Bulkow L, Harpster A et al. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaska Natives infected with chronic hepatitis B: a 16-year population-based study. Hepatology 2000; 32: 842846.
  • 27
    Sherman M, Peltekian KM, Lee C. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis virus B: incidence and prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in a North American urban population. Hepatology 1995; 22: 432714.
  • 28
    Chu CJ, Lok AS. Clinical utility in quantifying serum HBV DNA levels using PCR assays. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 549551.
  • 29
    Kao JH, Chen DS. Global control of hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2: 395403.
  • 30
    Lok AS, Heathcote EJ, Hoofnagle JH. Management of Hepatitis B: 2000 – Summary of Workshop. Gastroenterology 2001 2000; 120: 18281853.
  • 31
    Manesis EK, Papatheodoridis GV, Hadziyannis SJ. Serum HBV DNA levels in inactive hepatitis B carriers. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 20922093.
  • 32
    Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC et al. Formulation and application of numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 1981; 1: 431435.
  • 33
    Ishak K, Baptista A, Bianchi L et al. Histological grading and staging of hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 696699.
  • 34
    The French Metavir Cooperative Study Group. Intraobserver and interobserver variations in liver biopsy interpretation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1994; 20: 1520.
  • 35
    Rozario R et al. Histopathological study of chronic hepatitis B and C: a comparison of two scoring systems. J Hepatol 2003; 38: 223229.
  • 36
    Lok AS, Zoulim F, Locarnini S et al. Monitoring drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) – infected patients during lamivudine therapy: evaluation of performance of INNO-LiPA HBV DR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 37293734.
  • 37
    Cooley L et al. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection: development of Lamivudine resistance. 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, 22–28 February 2002; Abstract 673-M.
  • 38
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Thibault V et al. Long-term incidence of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-related patients. Hepatology 1999; 30: 13021306.
  • 39
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of hepatitis A though active or passive immunisation: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1996; 45: 130.
  • 40
    CDC. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for limiting transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination. Recommendations Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991; 40: 125.
  • 41
    Wong DK, Yim C, Naylor CD et al. Interferon alfa treatment of chronic hepatitis B: randomized trial in a predominantly homosexual male population. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 165171.
  • 42
    Krogsgaard K, Bindslev N, Christensen E et al. The treatment effect of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis B is independent of pre-treatment variables. Results based on individual patient data from 10 clinical controlled trials. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (Eurohep). J Hepatol 1994; 21: 646655.
  • 43
    Zylberberg H, Jiang J, Pialoux G et al. Alpha-interferon for chronic active hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1996; 20: 968971.
  • 44
    Dore GJ, Cooper DA, Barrett C et al. Dual efficacy of lamivudine treatment in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected persons in a randomized, controlled study (CAESAR). The CAESAR Coordinating Committee. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 607613.
  • 45
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Thibault V et al. Long-term incidence of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Hepatology 1999; 30: 13021306.
  • 46
    Hoff J, Bani-Sadr F, Gassin M et al. Evaluation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in coinfected patients receiving lamivudine as a component of anti-human immunodeficiency virus regimens. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 963969.
  • 47
    Leung N. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B. case selection and duration of therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 17: 409414.
  • 48
    Pillay D, Cane PA, Ratcliffe D et al. Evolution of lamivudine resistant-hepatitis B virus and HIV-1 in co-infected individuals: an analysis of the CAESAR study. CAESAR co-ordinating committee. AIDS 2000; 14: 11111116.
  • 49
    Wolters LMM, Niesters HGM, Hansen BE et al. Development of hepatitis B virus resistance for lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in a Dutch cohort. J Clin Virol 2002; 24: 173181.
  • 50
    Bessesen M, Ives D, Condreay L et al. Chronic active hepatitis B exacerbations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients following development of resistance to or withdrawal of lamivudine. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: 10321035.
  • 51
    Bonacini M, Kurz A, Locarnini S et al. Fulminant hepatitis B due to a lamivudine-resistant mutant of HBV in a patient coinfected with HIV. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 244245.
  • 52
    Santantonio T, Mazzola M, Iacovazzi T et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with anti-HBe/HBV DNA-positive chronic hepatitis B treated for 12 months with lamivudine. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 300306.
  • 53
    Marcellin P, Chang TT, Lim SG et al. GS-98–437: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for the treatment of patients with HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis B infection: 48 week results. Hepatology 2001; 34: 340A.
  • 54
    Hadziyannis S, Tassopolous N, Heathcote E et al. GS-98–438: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for presumed precore mutant chronic hepatitis B. 48 week results. 37th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). Madrid, Spain, 17–21 April, 2002: Abstract, 648.
  • 55
    Delaugerre C, Marcelin AG, Thibault V et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HIV-coinfected patients treated for HBV chronic infection once daily with 10 milligrams of adefovir dipivoxil combined with lamivudine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 15861588.
  • 56
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Thibault V et al. Safety and efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus: an open-label pilot study. Lancet 2001; 358: 718723.
  • 57
    Gilson RJC, Chopra KB, Newell AM et al. A placebo-controlled phase I/II study of adefovir dipivoxil in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Viral Hep 1999; 6: 387395.
  • 58
    Xiong X, Flores C, Yang H et al. Mutations in hepatitis B DNA polymerase associated with resistance to lamivudine do not confer resistance to adefovir in vitro. Hepatology 1998; 28: 16691673.
  • 59
    Perrillo R, Schill E, Yoshida E et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B mutants. Hepatology 2000; 32: 129134.
  • 60
    Peters M, Hann HW, Martin P et al. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) alone and in combination with lamivudine (LAM) suppresses YMDD mutant hepatitis B virus replication: 48 week preliminary analysis. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
  • 61
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Tubiana R et al. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate suppresses lamivudine-resistant HBV replication in chronic hepatitis B patients co-infected with HIV/HBV. 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 7–12 July 2002; Poster, 7527.
  • 62
    Ristig MB, Crippin J, Aberg JA et al. Tenofavir Disoproxil Fumarate therapy for chronic hepatitis B in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Heptitis B Virus-coninfected individuals for whom interferon-α and lamivudine therapy have failed. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 18441847.
  • 63
    Nelson M, Portsmouth S, Stebbing J et al. An open-label study of tenofavir in HIV-1 and Heptitis B virus co-infected individuals. AIDS 2003; 17: F7F10.
  • 64
    Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Papadimitropoulos V. Nucleoside analogues for chronic hepatitis B. antiviral efficacy and viral resistance. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 16181628.
    Direct Link:
  • 65
    De-Man RA, Wolters LM, Nevens F et al. Safety and efficacy of oral entecavir given for 28 days in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 2001; 43: 578582.
  • 66
    Gish RG, Leung NWY, Wright T et al. Dose range study of pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary antiviral activity of emtricitabine in adults with hepatitis B virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 17341740.
  • 67
    Das K, Xiong X, Yang H et al. Molecular modeling and biochemical characterization reveal the mechanism of hepatitis B virus polymerase resistance to lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC). J Virol 2001; 75: 47714779.
  • 68
    Ono SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y et al. The polymerase L528M mutation cooperates with nucleotide binding-site mutations, increasing hepatitis B virus replication and drug resistance. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 449455.
  • 69
    Matthews GV, Pillay D, Cane P et al. Failure of combination therapy with lamivudine and famciclovir following lamivudine monotherapy for hepatitis B virus infection in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus-1. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33: 20492054.