We conducted a self-administered questionnaire to investigate ice-cream headache in school adolescents aged 13–15 in Taiwan. The target population was 8789 students in 6 public junior high schools. A total of 8359 students completed the questionnaire (response rate 95.1%). The prevalence of ice-cream headache was 40.6%. It was significantly higher in boys than in girls, and increased with grade. Students with migraine had a higher frequency of ice-cream headache compared with the students without migraine (55.2% vs. 39.6%, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of ice-cream headache increased among students with more migrainous features. Approximately one third of students decreased their intake of ice cream, or abstained completely, especially the younger students. Our study suggests ice-cream headache is very common in Taiwanese adolescents, and it is more common in students who experienced migraine.