Use of a Modified Azrin–Foxx Toilet Training Procedure with Individuals with Angelman Syndrome



Incontinence of urine and faeces is commonly observed among children with intellectual disability. Although various procedures to establish toileting skills do exist, studies on their effectiveness with children with Angelman syndrome (AS) are lacking. In the present study, a procedure based on Azrin–Foxx toilet training was used to establish toileting skills in six children with intellectual disability and AS. All children showed improved toilet skills. Maintenance was documented by follow-up recordings for up to 2.5 years. The results are discussed in terms of the specific relationship between the characteristics of trainees with AS and the present training procedure.