Postmenopausal endometrial fluid accumulation was considered in the past to be related to cancer of the genital organs. Our purpose was to evaluate its prevalence, and its association with cervical stricture, use of hormone replacement therapy and endometrial pathology.
A group of 1074 asymptomatic postmenopausal women aged 57–61 (mean 59) years was examined by transvaginal sonography with color Doppler imaging. Women who had an endometrial fluid accumulation underwent endometrial biopsy. Statistical analysis was mainly based on analysis of variance.
Endometrial fluid accumulation was found in 134 women (12%). Women using only estrogen as hormone replacement therapy had a relative risk of 3.5 of endometrial fluid accumulation. In 12 women (9%), a cervical stricture precluded endometrial sampling. Six abnormal histopathological samples were found (5%): two endometrial polyps, one cystic hyperplasia, two adenomatous hyperplasias but only one adenocarcinoma. One further patient with endometrial cancer was registered by the Finnish Cancer Registry 2.5 years later in a woman who had refused endometrial sampling.
Endometrial fluid accumulation is quite a common finding on transvaginal sonograpby among asymptomatic post-menopausal women and the process may be multifactorial. Cervical stricture is not the most important etiological factor. The use of estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of endometrial fluid accumulation; however, it is rarely a sign of malignancy. Copyright © 1996 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology