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Keywords:

  • Biotroph;
  • callose;
  • inhibitors;
  • monokaryon;
  • resistance

summary

The interaction between the race 1 of the cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae Barclay) and the resistant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) ev. Queen Anne is characterized by the deposition of callose around intracellular fungal structures. Ultrastructural examination of the early stages of infection by basidiospores of the fungus revealed two types of deposits induced by intracellular hyphae: a non-callose collar at the penetration site and a callose encasement around the invasion hypha. The callose encasement was developed from the site where the fungus encountered the inside of the plant cell wall and was separated from the fungus by the extrahyphal membrane and an extension of plant plasma membrane. The incidence of encasements was reduced in plants treated with inhibitors of transcription (actinomycin D), protein synthesis (cycloheximide), protein glycosylation (tunicamycin) and microfilament polymerization (cytochalasin E). Inhibitors of Golgi-associated vesicle transfer (monensin, brefeldin A) and anti-microtubule agents (colchicine, oryzalin) had no effect. When the fungus was killed by heat treatment in either the resistant or the susceptible cultivar, callose was deposited at various locations along the fungus, mostly in the extrahyphal matrix. The data suggest that unlike the extrahaustorial membrane surrounding D-haustoria of this fungus, the extrahyphal membrane is capable of generating callose. Since this process does not normally occur in the susceptible or the resistant cv. even when callose is deposited in the latter by regions of the plasma membrane not associated with the fungus, we conclude that the deposition of callose by the extrahyphal membrane is inhibited by the living fungus.