SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Cell wall;
  • morphogenesis;
  • polyamines;
  • polyamine inhibitors;
  • tobacco thin layers

summary

  1. Top of page
  2. references

Polyamines (PAs) and the cell wall have important roles in plant morphogenesis. An interaction between cell wall components (pectic substances) and polyamines is known and inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis induces inhibition of some morphogenic processes. This is the case of rhizogenesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) thin layers. This paper investigates whether inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis induces modifications in the structure, shape and size of the primary cell walls in tobacco thin layers cultured on a rhizogenic medium, and whether polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) administered in combination with their corresponding inhibitors dl-α-difluoromethylomithine +dl-α-difluoromethylarginine (DFMO + DFMA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) restore cell wall characteristics. In treatments with polyamine inhibitors, cell hypertrophy occurred in the lowermost layer of the explant in contact with the medium. Many unusual features were observed in the walls of the hypertrophic cells: an amorphous structure, loosening of the fibrillar component; detachment between contiguous cells, lysis of wall components and an uneven thickness often giving a wavy appearance (in transverse walls). The inhibitors reduced cell wall thickness, and caused a weak positive PATAg reaction for polysaccharides. Polyamines restored cell wall thickness and, in general, the other wall features. Our results show that polyamines are necessary for maintaining cell wall characteristics by strengthening the links between cell-wall components.

Unusual Abbreviation
ADC

arginine decarboxylase

CHA

cyclohexylamine

DFMA

DL-α-difluoromethylarginine

DFMO

DL-α-difluoromethylornithine IBA, indole-3-butyric acid

KIN

kinetin

MGBG

methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone)

PA(s)

polyamine(s)

PATAg

periodic acid-silver methenamine method

SAMDC

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

references

  1. Top of page
  2. references
  • Altamura MM, Torrigiani P, Capitani F, Scaramagli S and Bagni N. 1991. De novo root formation in tobacco thin layers is affected by inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 42: 15751582.
  • Altamura MM, Capitani F, Cerchia R, Falasca G, Bagni N. 1993. Cytological events induced by the inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in thin cell layers of tobacco. Protoplasma 175: 916.
  • Altamura MM, Capitani F, Falasca G, Zaghi D and Bagni N. 1994. Reversion by spermidine of cyclohexylamine-induced anomalies in the mitotic spindle activity in rhizogenic thin layers of tobacco. Annali di Botanica 52: 719.
  • Altman A. 1989. Polyamines and plant hormones. In: BachrachU, HeimerYM, eds. The Physiology of Polyamines. Boca Raton , FL , USA : CRC Press, 2, 121145.
  • Apelbaum A, Burgoon AC, Anderson JD, Lieberman, M. 1981. Polyamines inhibit biosynthesis of ethylene in higher plant tissue and fruit protoplasts. Plant Physiology 68: 453456.
  • Bagni N. 1989. Polyamines in plant growth and development. In: BachrachU, HeimerYM, eds. The Physiology of Polyamines. Boca Raton , FL , USA : CRC Press, 2, 107120.
  • Bagni N, Serafini-Fracassini D. 1978. Polyamines and plant tumours. Italian Journal of Biochemistry 28: 392395.
  • Bagni N, Pistocchi R. 1990. Binding, transport and subcellular compartmentation of polyamines in plants. In: FloresHEHE, ArtecaRN, ShannonC, eds. Polyamines and Ethylene: Biochemistry, Physiology and Interactions. Rockville , MA , USA : American Society of Plant Physiology Publishers, 6272.
  • Berlin J, Forche E. 1981. DL-α-difluoromethyl ornithine causes enlargement of cultured tobacco cells. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzen-physiologie 101: 277282.
  • Boller T. 1988. Ethylene and the regulation of antifungal hydrolases in plants. In: MiflinBJ. ed. Surveys of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 5, 145174.
  • Carpita NC, Gibeaut DM. 1993. Structural models of primary cell walls in flowering plants: consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth. Plant Journal 3: 130.
  • D'Orazi D, Bagni N. 1987. In vitro interactions between polyamines and pectic substances. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 148: 12591263.
  • Federico R, Angelini R. 1991. Polyamine catabolism in plants. In: SlocumRD, FloresHE, eds. Biochemistry and Physiology of Polyamines in Plants. Boca Raton , FL , USA : CRC Press, 4156.
  • Fredrikson K, Larsson C. 1989. Activation of 1,3-β -glucan synthase by Ca2+, spermine and cellobiose. Localisation of activator sites using inside-out plasma membrane vescicles. Physiologia Plantarum 77: 496201.
  • Galston AW, Kaur-Sawhney R, Tiburcio AF, Hamasaki N, Oshima T, Furuya M. 1990. The control of morphogenesis by polyamines. In: FloresHE, ArtecaRN, ShannonJC, eds. Polyamines and Ethylene: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions. Rockville , MA , USA : American Society of Plant Physiologists Publishers, 224235.
  • Goldberg R, Perdrizet E. 1984. Ratio of free and bound polyamines during maturation in mung-bean hypocotyl cells. Planta 161: 531535.
  • Liyama K, Bach-Tuyet Lam T, Stone BA. 1994. Covalent cross-links in the cell wall. Plant Physiology 104: 315320.
  • Jänne J, Pösö H, Raina A. 1978. Polyamines in rapid growth and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 473: 241249.
  • Mariani P, D'Orazi D, Bagni N. 1989. Polyamines in primary walls of carrot cells: endogenous content and interactions. Journal Plant Physiology 135: 508510.
  • Murashige T, Skoog F. 1962. Revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plant-arum 15: 473497.
  • Pohjanpelto P, Virtanen I, Hölttä E. 1981. Polyamine starvation causes disappearance of actin filaments and microtubules in polyamine-auxotrophic CHO cells. Nature 293: 475477.
  • Scalabrino G, Ferioli ME. 1984. Polyamines in mammalian ageing: an oncological problem, too? A review. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 26: 149165.
  • Smith TA. 1990. Plant polyamines. Metabolism and function. In: FloresHE, ArtecaRN, ShannonJC, eds. Polyamines and Ethylene: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions. Rockville , MA , USA : American Society of Plant Physiologists Publishers, 123.
  • Smith TA, Negrel J, Bvid CR. 1983. The cinnamic acid amides of the di- and polyamines. Advanced Polyamine Research 4: 347370.
  • Tabor H, Tabor CW. 1989. Microbial mutant deficient in polyamine synthesis. In BachrachU, HeimerYM, eds. The Physiology of Poly amines. Boca Raton , FL , USA : CRC Press, 2, 6372.
  • Thiéry JP. 1967. Mise en évidence des polysaccharides sur coupes fines en microscopie electronique. Journal Microscopie 6: 9871018.
  • Torrigiani P, Altamura MM, Capitani F, Serafini-Fracassini D, Bagni N. 1989. De novo root formation in thin cell layers of tobacco: changes in free and bound polyamines. Physiologia Plantarum 77: 294301.