The morphology and anatomy of ectomycorrhizas of Rhizopogon parksii, Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon subcaerulescens, and a hypogeous relative, Truncocolumella citrina, synthesized on Douglas fir in glasshouse conditions using spore slurries as inoculum, are described and compared. Mycorrhizas formed with R. parksii and R. vinicolor did not exhibit their characteristic subtuberculate morphology in these tests, but rather had a pinnate form. All species had diagnostic features of ectomycorrhizas: a well-developed Hartig net and a fungal mantle. In addition, several species exhibited crystal inclusions in the outer mantle, usually at the interface between the mantle and soil. Truncocolumella citrina had crystal-like inclusions within the mantle but external to fungal hyphae, a feature rarely described in ectomycorrhizas.