• Craine JM, Berin DM, Reich PB, Tilman DG, Knops JMH. 1999. Measurement of leaf longevity of 14 species of grasses and forbs using a novel approach. New Phytologist 142: 475481.
  • Curtis PS. 1996. A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and nitrogen in trees grown under elevated carbon dioxide. Plant, Cell & Environment 19: 127137.
  • Curtis PS, Drake BG, Whigham DF. 1989. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in C3 and C4 estuarine marsh plant growth under elevated carbon dioxide in situ. Oecologia 78: 297301.
  • Curtis PS & Wang X. 1998. A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299313.
  • Hobbie SE. 1992. Effects of plant species on nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 336339.
  • Hungate BA, Chapin FSI, Zhong H, Holland EA, Field CB. 1997. Stimulation of grassland nitrogen cycling under carbon dioxide enrichment. Oecologia 109: 149153.
  • Jackson RB, Sala OE, Paruelo JM, Mooney HA. 1998. Ecosystem water fluxes for two grasslands in elevated CO2: a modeling analysis. Oecologia 113: 537546.
  • Knapp AK. 1993. Gas exchange dynamics in C3 and C4 grasses: consequences of differences in stomatal conductance. Ecology 74: 113123.
  • Knapp AK, Bargmann N, Maragni LA, McAllister CA, Bremer DJ, Ham JM, Owensby CE. 1999. Elevated CO2 and leaf longevity in the C4 grassland-dominant Andropogon gerardii. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160: 10571061.
  • Koch GW & Mooney HA. 1996. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • Lewin KF, Hendrey GR, Nagy J, LaMorte R. 1994. Design and application of free-air carbon dioxide enrichment facility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70: 1529.
  • Navas M-L, Garnier E, Austin MP, Gifford RM. 1999. Effect of competition on the responses of grasses and legumes to elevated atmospheric CO2 along a nitrogen gradient: differences between isolated plants, monocultures and multi-species mixtures. New Phytologist 143: 323331.
  • Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: Implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 683714.
  • Reich PB. 1995. Phenology of tropical forests: patterns, causes, and consequences. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 164174.
  • Reich PB. 1998. Variation among plant species in leaf turnover rates and associated traits: implications for growth at all life stages. In: LambersH, PoorterH, VuurenMMIV, eds. Inherent variation in plant growth. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 467487.
  • Reich PB, Knops J, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D, Tjoelker M, Lee T, Wedin D, Naeem S, Bahauddin D, Hendrey G, Jose S, Wrage K, Goth J, Bengston W. 2001. Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen enrichment. Nature. (In press.)
  • Reich PB, Koike T, Gower ST, Schoettle AW. 1995. Causes and consequences of variation in conifer leaf life span. In: SmithWK, HinckleyTM, eds. Ecophysiology of coniferous forests San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 225254.
  • Reich PB, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS. 1997. From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 1373013734.
  • Roumet C, Laurent G, Roy J. 1999. Leaf structure and chemical composition as affected by elevated CO2: Genotypic responses of two perennial grasses. New Phytologist 143: 7381.
  • Schoettle AW. 1990. The interaction between leaf longevity and shoot growth and foliar biomass per shoot in Pinus contorta at two elevations. Tree Physiology 7: 209214.
  • Shaver GR. 1983. Mineral nutrition and leaf longevity in Ledum palustre: the role of individual nutrients and the timing of leaf mortality. Oecologia 56: 160165.
  • Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RH, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler DW, Schlesinger WH, Tilman DG. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Source and consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737750.