SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bernoulli M, Körner C. 1999. Dry matter allocation in treeline trees. Phyton 39: 711.
  • Brockmann-Jerosch H. 1919. Baumgrenze und Klimacharakter. (Pflanzengeographische Kommission der Schweiz. Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Beiträge zur geobotanischen Landesaufnahme. 6). Zürich, Switzerland: Rascher.
  • Cardon ZG, Berry JA, Woodrow IE. 1995. Fluctuating [CO2] drives species specific changes in water use efficiency. Journal of Biogeography 22: 203208.
  • Ceulemans R, Mousseau M. 1994. Tansley Review, 71: Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. New Phytologist 127: 425446.
  • Curtis PS, Klus DJ, Kalisz S, Tonsor SJ. 1996. Intraspecific variation in CO2 responses in Raphanus raphanistrum and Plantago lanceolata: assessing the potential for evolutionary change with rising atmospheric CO2. In: KörnerC, BazzazFA, eds. Carbon dioxide, populations, and communities. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1322.
  • Curtis PS, Wang X. 1998. A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299313.
  • Dixon M, Le Thiec D, Garrec JP. 1995. The growth and gas exchange response of soil-planted Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) exposed to elevated [CO2] and to naturally occurring drought. New Phytologist 129: 265273.
  • Egli P, Maurer S, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Körner C. 1998. Effects of elevated CO2 and soil quality on leaf gas exchange and above-ground growth in beech-spruce model ecosystems. New Phytologist 140: 185196.
  • Ellsworth DS. 1999. CO2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: Are CO2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected? Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 461472.
  • Ellsworth DS, Oren R, Huang C, Phillips N, Hendrey GR. 1995. Leaf and canopy responses to elevated CO2 in a pine forest under free-air CO2 enrichment. Oecologia 104: 139146.
  • Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Rada F. 1994. Environmental biology of a tropical treeline species, Polylepis sericea. In: RundelPW, SmithAP, MeinzerFC, eds. Tropical alpine environments. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 129149.
  • Grace J. 1989. Tree lines. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Socitey London B 324: 233245.
  • Graumlich LJ. 1991. Subalpine tree growth, climate, and increasing CO2: an assessment of recent growth trends. Ecology 72: 111.
  • Graybill DA, Idso SB. 1993. Detecting the aerial fertilization effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment in tree ring chronologies. Global Geochemical Cycles 7: 8195.
  • Griggs RF. 1946. The timberlines of northern America and their interpretation. Ecology 27: 275289.
  • Häsler R. 1982. Net photosynthesis and transpiration of Pinus montana on east and north facing slopes at alpine timberline. Oecologia 54: 1422.
  • Hättenschwiler S, Körner C. 1996. System-level adjustments to elevated CO2 in model spruce ecosystems. Global Change Biology 2: 377387.
  • Hättenschwiler S, Körner C. 1998. Biomass allocation and canopy development in spruce model ecosystems under elevated CO2 and increased N deposition. Oecologia 113: 10114.
  • Hättenschwiler S, Miglietta F, Raschi A, Körner C. 1997. Thirty years of in situ tree growth under elevated CO2: a model for future forest responses? Global Change Biology 3: 463471.
  • Hendrey GR, Ellsworth DS, Lewin KF, Nagy J. 1999. A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 5: 293309.
  • Hendrey GR, Lewin KF, Nagy J. 1993. Control of carbon dioxide in unconfined field plots. In: SchulzeE-D, MooneyHA, eds. Design and execution of experiments on CO2 enrichment. Ecosystems Research Report 6. Brussels, Belgium: Commission of the European Communities, CEC-DGXII/D-1, 309329.
  • Hendrey GR, Long SP, McKee IF, Baker NR. 1997. Can photosynthesis respond to short-term fluctuations in atmospheric carbon dioxide? Photosynthesis Research 51: 179184.
  • Hoch G, Popp M, Körner C. 2002. Altitudinal increase of mobile carbon pools in Pinus cembra suggest sink limitation of growth at the Swiss treeline. Oikos 98: 361374.
  • Kienast F, Luxmoore RJ. 1988. Tree-ring analysis and conifer growth responses to increased atmospheric CO2 levels. Oecologia 76: 487495.
  • Körner C. 1995. Towards a better experimental basis for upscaling plant responses to elevated CO2 and climate warming. Plant, Cell & Environment 18: 11011110.
  • Körner C. 1998. A re-assessment of high elevation treeline positions and their explanation. Oecologia 115: 445459.
  • Körner C. 2000. Biosphere responses to CO2 enrichment. Ecological Applications 10: 15901619.
  • Körner C, Diemer M. 1987. In situ photosynthetic responses to light, temperature and carbon dioxide in herbaceous plants from low and high altitude. Functional Ecology 1: 179194.
  • Körner C, Farquhar GD, Wong SC. 1991. Carbon isotope discrimination by plants follows latitudinal and altitudinal trends. Oecologia 88: 3040.
  • Körner C, Miglietta F. 1994. Long term effects of naturally elevated CO2 on mediterranean grassland and forest trees. Oecologia 99: 343351.
  • Kuoch R, Amiet R. 1970. Die Verjüngung im Bereich der oberen Waldgrenze der Alpen. Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Anstalt für Forstliches Versuchswesen 46: 160328.
  • LaMarche VC, Graybill DA, Fritts HC, Rose MR. 1984. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: tree ring evidence for growth enhancement in natural vegetation. Science 225: 10191021.
  • Loehle C. 1995. Anomalous responses of plants to CO2 enrichment. Oikos 73: 181187.
  • Miglietta F, Peressotti A, Primo Vaccari F, Zaldei A, DeAngelis P, Scarascia-Mugnozza G. 2001. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) of a poplar plantation: the POPFACE fumigation system. New Phytologist 150: 465476.
  • Nicolussi K, Bortenschlager S, Körner C. 1995. Increase in tree-ring width in subalpine Pinus cembra from the central Alps that may be CO2-related. Trees 9: 181189.
  • Norby RJ, Gunderson CA, Wullschleger SD, O'Neill EG, McCracken MK. 1992. Productivity and compensatory response of yellow-poplar trees in elevated CO2. Nature 357: 322324.
  • Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: Implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 683714.
  • Okada M, Lieffering M, Nakamura H, Yoshimoto M, Kim HY, Kobayashi K. 2001. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) using pure CO2 injection: system description. New Phytologist 150: 251260.
  • Oren R, Ellsworth DS, Johnsen KH, Phillips N, Ewers BE, Maler C, Schäfer KVR, McCarthy H, Hendrey G, McNulty SG, Katul GG. 2001. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature 411: 469472.
  • Paulsen J, Weber UM, Körner C. 2000. Tree growth near treeline: abrupt or gradual reduction with altitude? Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 32: 1420.
  • Pepin S, Körner C. 2002. Web-FACE: a new canopy free-air CO2 enrichment system for tall trees in mature forests. Oecologia 133: 19.
  • Pinter PJ, Kimball BA, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, Adamsen FJ, Frumau KFA, Vugts HF, Hendrey GR, Lewin KF, Nagy J, Johnson HB, Wechsung F, Leavitt SW, Thompson TI, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ. 2000. Free-air [CO2] enrichment (FACE): Blower effects on wheat canopy microclimate and plant development. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 103: 319333.
  • Pisek A, Winkler E. 1958. Assimilationsvermögen und Respiration der Fichte (Picea excelsa Link) in verschiedener Höhenlage und der Zirbe (Pinus cembra L.) and der alpinen Waldgrenze. Planta 51: 518543.
  • Poorter H, Van Berkel Y, Baxter R, Den Hertog J, Dijkstra P, Gifford RM, Griffin KL, Roumet C, Roy J, Wong SC. 1997. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species. Plant, Cell & Environment 20: 472482.
  • Rolland C, Petitcolas V, Michalet R. 1998. Changes in radial tree growth for Picea abies, Larix decidua, Pinus cembra and Pinus uncinata near the alpine timberline since 1750. Trees 13: 4053.
  • Saxe H, Ellsworth DS, Heath J. 1998. Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere. New Phytologist 139: 395436.
  • Schönenberger W. 1975. Standortseinflüsse auf Versuchsaufforstungen an der alpinen Waldgrenze (Stillberg, Davos). Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Anstalt für Forstliches Versuchswesen 51: 357428.
  • Schönenberger W, Frey W. 1988. Untersuchungen zur Ökologie und Technik der Hochlagenaufforstung. Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Lawinenanrissgebiet Stillberg. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 139: 735820.
  • Senn J, Schönenberger W. 2001. Zwanzig Jahre Versuchsaufforstung Stillberg: Überleben und Wachstum einer subalpinen Aufforstung in Abhängigkeit vom Standort. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 152: 226246.
  • Slatyer RO, Ferrar PJ. 1977. Altitudinal variation in the photosynthetic characteristics of snow gum, Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. V. Rate of acclimation to an altered growth environment. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 4: 595602.
  • Spinnler D, Egli P, Körner C. 2002. Four-year growth dynamics of beech-spruce model ecosystems under CO2 enrichment on two different forest soils. Trees 16: 423436.
  • Sveinbjörnsson B. 2000. North American and European treelines: external forces and internal processes controlling position. Ambio 29: 388395.
  • Tissue DT, Thomas RB, Strain BR. 1997. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment increases growth and photosynthesis in Pinus taeda: a 4 year experiment in the field. Plant, Cell & Environment 20: 11231134.
  • Tranquillini W. 1979. Physiological ecology of the alpine timberline. Tree existence at high altitudes with special references to the European Alps (Ecological studies 31). New York, USA: Springer Verlag.
  • Turner H, Häsler R, Schönenberger W. 1982. Contrasting microenvironments and their effects on carbon uptake and allocation by young conifers near alpine treeline in Switzerland. In: WaringRH, ed. Carbon uptake and allocation in subalpine ecosystems as a key to management. Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop P. 1.07–00 Ecology of Subalpine Zones. Corvallis, OR, USA: IUFRO, 2230.
  • Wang K-Y, Kellomäki S. 1997. Stomatal conductance and transpiration in shoots of Scots pine after 4-year exposure to elevated CO2 and temperature. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 552561.
  • Wardle P. 1971. An explanation for alpine timberlines. New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 371402.