Density-dependent responses of reproductive allocation to elevated atmospheric CO2 in Phytolacca americana
Article first published online: 24 JAN 2003
Volume 157, Issue 2, pages 229–239, February 2003
How to Cite
He, J.-S. and Bazzaz, F. A. (2003), Density-dependent responses of reproductive allocation to elevated atmospheric CO2 in Phytolacca americana. New Phytologist, 157: 229–239. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00660.x
- Issue published online: 24 JAN 2003
- Article first published online: 24 JAN 2003
- Received: 5 June 2002 Accepted: 28 October 2002
- 1995. Plant growth and reproduction along CO2 gradients: non-linear responses and implications for community change. Global Change Biology 1: 199–207. , .
- 2001. Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield: review of results from experiments using various approaches to control CO2 concentration. Field Crops Research 73: 1–34. .
- 1983. Observations on the reproductive biology of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110: 380–383. , , .
- 1990. The response of natural ecosystems to the rising global CO2 levels. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21: 167–196. .
- 1997. Allocation of resources in plants: state of the sciences and critical questions. In: BazzazFA, GraceJ, eds. Plant resource allocation. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1–37. .
- 2000. Reproductive allocation in plants. In: FennerM, ed. Seeds, the ecology of regeneration in plant communities, 2nd edn. Oxon, UK: CABI Publishing, 1–30. , , .
- 1992. CO2 enrichment and dependence of reproduction on density in an annual plant and a simulation of its population dynamics. Journal of Ecology 80: 643–651. , , , .
- 1995. Microevolutionary responses in experimental populations of plants to CO2 enriched environments – parallel results from 2 model systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 8161–8165. , , , .
- 2000. Biomass allocation in old-field annual species grown in elevated CO2 environments: no evidence for optimal partitioning. Global Change Biology 6: 855–863. , , .
- 1998. Population-level responses to nutrient heterogeneity and density by Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae): an experimental neighborhood approach. American Journal of Botany 85: 1680–1687. , .
- 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117: 357–367. , .
- 1994. Genotype-specific effects of elevated CO2 on fecundity in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Oecologia 97: 100–105. , , .
- 1998. A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299–313. , .
- 1995. Inter-generic and intra-generic differences in growth, reproduction, and fitness of nine herbaceous annual species grown in elevated CO2 environments. Oecologia 104: 454–466. , .
- 1996. Elevated CO2 alters anatomy, physiology, growth, and reproduction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Oecologia 108: 599–609. , , .
- 1984. The effects of elevated CO2 on plants. III. Flower, fruit and seed production and abortion. New Phytologist 98: 433–446. , .
- 1990. Analysis of the differential response of five annuals to elevated CO2 during growth. Ecology 71: 1185–1194. , , .
- 1996. Agriculture and global change: scaling direct carbon dioxide impacts and feedbacks through time. In: WalkerB, SteffenW, eds. Global change and terrestrial ecosystems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 229–259. , , , .
- 1999. Use of models in global change studies. In: WalkerB, SteffenW, CanadellJ, IngramJ, eds. The terrestrial biosphere and global change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 106–140. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1997. Towards models of resource allocation by plants. In: Bazzaz, FA, Grace, J, eds. Plant resource allocation. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 279–291. .
- 1990. Perspective on plant competition. New York, USA: Academic Press. , .
- 2000. Growth and reproductive responses to elevated CO2 in wild cereals of the northern Negev of Israel. Global Change Biology 6: 631–638. , .
- 1977. Population biology of plants. New York, USA: Academic Press. .
- 1987. A vegetative plant growth model: adaptive significance of phenotypic plasticity in matter partitioning. Functional Ecology 1: 195–202. .
- 1988. Metabolism and compartmentation of imported sugars in sink organs in relation to sink strength. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology 39: 355–378. .
- 1998. The effects of parental CO2 environment on seed quality and subsequent seedling performance in Bromus rubens. Oecologia 114: 202–208. , , , , .
- 1999. Reproductive allocation and seed production in Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens at elevated atmospheric CO2. Functional Ecology 13: 769–777. , , .
- 1997. Responses of vegetative and reproductive traits to elevated CO2 and nitrogen in Raphanus varieties. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 533–545. .
- 1995. Photosynthesis, growth and density for the dominant species in a CO2-enriched grassland. Journal of Biogeography 22: 221–225. , , , , , .
- 1994. CO2 alters water use, carbon gain, and yield for the dominant species in a natural grassland. Oecologia 98: 257–262. , , , .
- 2000. Allocation responses to CO2 enrichment and defoliation by a native annual plant Heterotheca subaxillaris. Global Change Biology 6: 767–778. , .
- 2001. Meta–analysis of the interaction between shade-tolerance, light environment and growth response of woody species to elevated CO2. Acta Oecologica 22: 61–69. .
- 2000. Biosphere responses to CO2 enrichment. Ecological Applications 10: 1590–1619. .
- 1986. Onset of reproduction in plants: size- versus age-dependency. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1: 72–75. .
- 2001. Rising CO2 levels and the fecundity of forest trees. Science 292: 95–98. , .
- 1993. Understanding photosynthetic adaptation to changing climate. In: FowdenL, MansfieldTA, StoddartJ, eds. Plant adaption to environmental stress. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 85–106. , .
- 1999. The effects of elevated CO2 and light environment on growth and reproductive performance of four annual species. New Phytologist 144: 455–462. , , .
- 2000. The evolutionary ecology of seed size. In: FennerM, ed. Seeds, the ecology of regeneration in plant community, 2nd edn. Oxon, UK: CABI Publishing, 31–58. , , , .
- 1989. The dependence of plant root: shoot ratios on internal nitrogen concentration. Annals of Botany 64: 71–76. , , .
- 1988. Multiple resources and the optimal balance between size and number of offspring. Evolutionary Ecology 2: 77–84. , .
- 2000. Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability. Journal of Ecology 88: 447–463. , .
- 1998. Free air CO2 enrichment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): development, growth and yield. Global Change Biology 4: 163–172. , , , , , , .
- 1999. Interactions between increasing CO2 concentration and temperature on plant growth. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 659–682. , .
- 1985. Nutrient content of Abutilon theophrasti seeds and the competitive ability of the resulting plants. Oecologia 65: 247–251. , .
- 1993. Interspecific variation in the growth response of plants to an elevated ambient CO2 concentration. Vegetatio 104/105: 77–97. .
- 1992. Plant responses to temperature under conditions of elevated CO2. Australian Journal of Botany 40: 473–490. .
- 1991. Phenology and growth in four annual species grown in ambient and elevated CO2. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 2475–2481. , .
- 1994. Effects of elevated CO2 on time of flowering in four short-day and four long-day species. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 533–538. , .
- 1999. Evolution of size-dependent flowering in Onopordum illyricum: a quantitative assessment of the role of stochastic selection pressures. American Naturalist 154: 628–651. , , , .
- 1996. The influence of plant density on the responses of Sinapsis alba to CO2 and windspeed. Oecologia 108: 241–251. , , .
- 1982. A shoot: root partitioning model. Annals of Botany 49: 585–597. , .
- 1996. Root to shoot ratio of crops as influenced by CO2. Plant and Soil 187: 229–248. , , , .
- 1998. Effects of elevated CO2 on flowering phenology and nectar production of nectar plants important for butterflies of calcareous grasslands. Oecologia 113: 341–349. , .
- 1999. SAS/STAT User's guide, Version 8.01. (on-Line Docs). Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute. .
- 1952. A geography of pokeweed. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 39: 113–125. .
- 2001. Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. New Phytologist 149: 369–400. , , , , .
- 1996. Growth dynamics and population development in an alpine grassland under elevated CO2. Oecologia 106: 93–99. .
- 2001. Design and analysis of ecological experiments. 2nd edn. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. , .
- 1995. Biometry, 3rd edn. New York, USA: W. H. Freeman. , .
- 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits: predictions of reaction norms for age and size at maturity. Evolution 40: 893–913. , .
- 2000. Maternal and direct effects of elevated CO2 on seed provisioning, germination and seedling growth in Bromus erectus. Oecologia 123: 475–480. , , .
- 1969. A model to describe the partitioning of photosynthate during vegetative growth. Annals of Botany 33: 419–430. .
- 1995. Seedling density modifies the growth responses of yellow birch maternal families to elevated carbon dioxide. Global Change Biology 1: 315–324. , .
- 1997. Light acquisition and growth by competing individuals in CO2-enriched atmosphere: consequence for size structure in regenerating birch stands. Journal of Ecology 85: 29–42. , .
- 1999. The density dependence of plant responses to elevated CO2. Journal of Ecology 87: 183–192. , , , .
- 1988. The influence of competition on plant reproduction. In: Lovett-DoustJ, Lovett-DoustL, eds. Plant reproduction ecology: patterns and strategies. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 228–245. .
- 1997. Threshold size for flowering in different habitats: effects of size-dependent growth and survival. Ecology 78: 2118–2132. , , , .
- 1993. Plant competition and nutrient limitation during early succession in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. American Midland Naturalist 129: 1–9. , .
- 1999. Biostatistical analysis, 4th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. .