• Bergman B, Gallon JR, Rai AN, Stal LJ. 1997. N2 fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 19: 139185.
  • Braun-Howland EB, Lindblad P, Nierzwicki-Bauer SA, Bergman B. 1988. Dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of nitrogenase in the cyanobacterial symbionts of three Azolla species: Localization and sequence of appearance during heterocyst differentiation. Planta 176: 319332.
  • Capone DG, Zehr JP, Paerl HW, Bergman B, Carpenter EJ. 1997. Trichodesmium, a globally significant marine cyanobacterium. Science 276: 12211229.
  • Donze M, Haveman J, Schiereck P. 1972. Absence of photosystem 2 in heterocysts of the blue-green alga Anabaena. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 256: 157161.
  • Fay P, Stewart WDP, Walsby AE, Fogg GE. 1968. Is the heterocyst the site of nitrogen fixation in blue-green algae? Nature 220: 810812.
  • Flynn KJ, Fasham MJR, Hipkin CR. 1997. Modelling the interactions between ammonium and nitrate uptake in marine phytoplankton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 352: 16251645.
  • Gallon JR. 1992. Reconciling the incompatible: N2 fixation and O2. New Phytologist 122: 571609.
  • Gallon JR, Evans AM, Jones DA, Albertano P, Congestri R, Bergman B, Gundersen K, Orcutt KM, Von Bröckel K, Fritsche P, Meyerhöfer M, Nachtigall K, Ohlendieck U, Te Lintel Hekkert S, Sivonen K, Repka S, Stal LJ, Staal M. 2002. Maximum rates of N2 fixation and primary production are out of phase in a developing cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 15141521.
  • Gallon JR, Stal LJ. 1992. N2 fixation in non-heterocystous cyanobacteria: an overview. In: CarpenterEJ, CaponeDG, RueterJG, eds. Marine pelagic cyanobacteria: trichodesmium and other diazotrophs. Dordrecht NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 362. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 115139.
  • Karl D, Michaels A, Bergman B, Capone D, Carpenter E, Letelier R, Lipschultz F, Paerl H, Sigman D, Stal L. 2002. Dinitrogen fixation in the world's oceans. Biogeochemistry 57/58: 4798.
  • Lundgren P, Söderbäck E, Singer A, Carpenter EJ, Bergman B. 2001. Katagnymene: characterization of a novel marine diazotroph. Journal of Phycology 37: 10521062.
  • Ortega-Calvo JJ, Stal LJ. 1991. Diazotrophic growth of the unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909 in continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 137: 17891797.
  • Stal LJ. 1995. Physiological ecology of cyanobacteria in microbial mats and other communities. New Phytologist 131: 132.
  • Stal LJ, Walsby AE. 2000. Photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 35: 97108.
  • Stephens N, Flynn KJ, Gallon JR. 2003. Interrelationships between the pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the cyanobacterium Gloeothece can be described using a mechanistic mathematical model. New Phytologist 160: 545555.
  • Walsby AE. 1985. The permeability of heterocysts to the gases nitrogen and oxygen. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 226: 345366.
  • Wyatt JT, Silvey JKG. 1969. Nitrogen fixation by Gloeocapsa. Science 165: 908909.
  • Zehr JP, Wyman M, Miller V, Duguay L, Capone DG. 1993. Modification of the Fe protein of nitrogenase in natural populations of Trichodesmium thiebautii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 669676.