SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abbott RJ, Brochmann C. 2003. History and evolution of the arctic flora: in the footsteps of Eric Hultén. Molecular Ecology 12: 299313.
  • Abbott RJ, Lowe AJ. 2004. Origins, establishment and evolution of two new polyploid species of Senecio in the British Isles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Abi-Rached L, Gilles A, Shiina T, Pontarotti P, Inoko H. 2002. Evidence of en bloc duplication in vertebrate genomes. Nature Genetics 31: 128129.
  • Adams KL, Cronn RC, Percifield R, Wendel JF. 2003. Genes duplicated by polyploidy show unequal contributions to the transcriptome and organ-specific reciprocal silencing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100: 46494654.
  • Adams KL, Wendel JF. 2004. Exploring the genomic mysteries of polyploidy in cotton. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Ainouche ML, Baumel A, Salmon A. 2004. Spartina anglica. a natural model system for studying early evolutionary changes that affect allopolyploid genomes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Allendorf FW, Stahl G, Ryman N. 1984. Silencing of duplicate genes: a null allele polymorphism for lactate dehydrogenase in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Molecular Biology and Evolution 1: 238.
  • Álvarez I, Wendel JF. 2004. Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (In press.)
  • Anderson E. 1949. Introgressive hybridization. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Levy AA, Feldman M. 2004. Genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of the wheat genome upon allopolyploidization. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Arnheim N. 1983. Concerted evolution of multigene families. In: NeiM, KoehnRK, eds. Evolution of genes and proteins. Sunderland, MA. USA: Sinauer Associates, 3861.
  • Arnold ML. 1997. Natural hybrization and evolution. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
  • Baldwin BG. 1997. Adaptive radiation of the Hawaiian silversword alliance. congruence and conflict of phylogenetic evidence from molecular and non-molecular investigations. In: GivnishTJ, SytsmaKJ, eds. Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 103128.
  • Barrett SCH, Richardson BJ. 1986. Genetic attributes of invading species. In: GrovesRH, BurdonJJ, eds. Ecology of biological invasions: an Australian perspective. Canberra, Australia: Australian Academy of Science, 2133.
  • Barrett SCH, Shore JS. 1989. Isozyme variation in colonizing plants. In: SoltisDE, SoltisPS, eds. Isozymes in plant biology. Portland, OR, USA: Dioscorides Press, 106126.
  • Barrier M, Baldwin BG, Robichaux RH, Purugganan MD. 1999. Interspecific hybrid ancestry of a plant adaptive radiation: Allopolyploidy of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) inferred from floral homeotic gene duplications. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 11051113.
  • Barrier M, Robichaux RH, Purugganan MD. 2001. Accelerated regulatory gene evolution in an adaptive radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 1020810213.
  • Bayer RJ, Purdy BG, Lebedyx DG. 1991. Niche differentiation among sexual species of Antennaria gaertneri (Asteraceae: Inuleae) and A. rosea, their allopolyploid derivative. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 5: 109123.
  • Becak ML, Becak W. 1998. Evolution by polyploidy in Amphibia: new insights. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 80: 2833.
  • Bennett MD, Leitch IJ, Price HJ, Johnston JS. 2003. Comparisons with Caenorhabditis (∼100 Mb) and Drosophila (∼175 Mb) using flow cytometry show genome size in Arabidopsis to be ∼157 Mb and thus ∼25% Larger than the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative Estimate of ∼125 Mb. Annals of Botany 91: 547557.
  • Bennetzen JL. 2000. Transposable element contributions to plant gene and plant genome evolution. Plant Molecular Biology 42: 251269.
  • Bennetzen JL. 2002. Mechanisms and rates of genome expansion and contraction in flowering plants. Genetica 115: 2936.
  • Birchler JA, Bhadra U, Bhadra MP, Auger DL. 2001. Dosage-dependent gene regulation in multicellular eukaryotes: implications for dosage compensation, aneuploid syndromes, and quantitative traits. Developmental Biology 234: 275288.
  • Blanc G, Hokamp K, Wolfe KH. 2003. A recent polyploidy superimposed on older large-scale duplications in the Arabidopsis genome. Genome Research 13: 137144.
  • Bowers JE, Chapman BA, Rong J, Paterson AH. 2003. Unravelling angiosperm genome evolution by phylogenetic analysis of chromosomal duplication events. Nature 422: 433438.
  • Brammal RA, Semple JC. 1990. The cytology of Solidago nemoralis (Compositae: Astereae). Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 20652069.
  • Bremer K. 2000. Early Cretaceous lineages of monocot flowering plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97: 47074711.
  • Bretagnolle F, Lumaret R. 1995. Bilateral polyploidization in Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. lusitanica: occurrence, morphological and genetic characteristics of first polyploids. Euphytica 84: 197207.
  • Bretagnolle F, Thompson JD. 1995. Gametes with the somatic chromosome number: mechanisms of their formation and role in the evolutin of autopolyploid plants. New Phytologist 129: 122.
  • Brochmann C, Brysting AK, Also IG, Borgen L, Grundt HH, Scheen A-C, Elven R. 2004. Polyploidy in arctic plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Brochmann C, Nilsson T, Gabrielsen TM. 1996. A classic example of postglacial allopolyploid speciation re-examined using RAPD markers and nucleotide sequences: Saxifraga osloensis (Saxifragaceae). Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 31: 7589.
  • Brochmann C, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 1992. Multiple origins of the octoploid Scandinavian endemic Draba cacuminum: electrophoretic and morphological evidence. Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 257272.
  • Brochmann C, Xiang Q-Y, Brunsfeld SJ, Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1998. Molecular evidence for polyploid origins in Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae): the narrow arctic endemic S. svalbardensis and its widespread allies. American Journal of Botany 85: 135143.
  • Carr GD, Kyhos DW. 1986. Adaptive Radiation in the Hawaiian Silversword Alliance (Compositae-Madiinae). II. Cytogenetics of Artificial and Natural Hybrids. Evolution 40: 959976.
  • Cedroni M, Cronn RC, Adams KL, Wilkins TA, Wendel JF. 2003. Evolution and expression of MYB genes in diploid and polyploid cotton. Plant Molecular Biology 51: 313325.
  • Chen ZJ, Wang J, Tian L, Lee H-S, Wang J, Chen M, Lee JJ, Josefsson C, Madlung A, Watson B, Lippman Z, Vaughn M, Pires JC, Colot V, Doege RW, Martienssen RA, Comai L, Osborn TC. 2004. The devlopment of Arabidopsis model system for genome-wide analysis of polyploidy effects. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Clausen J, Keck DD, Hiesey WM. 1945. Experimental studies on the nature of species II. Plant evolution through amphiploidy and autopolyploidy, with examples from the Madiinae. Publication 564. Washington, DC, USA: Carnegie Institute Washington.
  • Comai L. 2000. Genetic and epigenetic interactions in allopolyploid plants. Plant Molecular Biology 43: 387399.
  • Comai L, Tyagi AP, Winter K, Holmes-Davis R, Reynolds SH, Stevens Y, Byers B. 2000. Phenotypic instability and rapid gene silencing in newly formed Arabidopsis allotetraploids. Plant Cell 12: 15511567.
  • Crawford DJ. 1989. Enzyme electrophoresis and plant systematics. In: SoltisDE, SoltisPS, ed. Isozymes in plant biology. Portland, OR, USA: Dioscorides Press, 146191.
  • Cronn RC, Small RL, Wendel JF. 1999. Duplicated genes evolve independently after polyploid formation in cotton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96: 1440614411.
  • Cronn RC, Wendel JF. 2003. Cryptic trysts, genomic mergers, and plant speciation. New Phytologist (In press.)
  • Cruzan MB, Arnold ML. 1993. Ecological and genetic associations in an Iris hybrid zone. Evolution 47: 14321445.
  • Darlington CD. 1937. Recent advances in cytology. Philadelphia, PA, USA: P. Blakiston's Son.
  • Darwin C. 1859. On the origin of species. London, UK: John Murray.
  • David JL, Benavente E, Brès-Patry C, Dusautoir J-C, Echaide M. 2004. Are neopolyploids a likely route for a transgene walk in the wild? The Aegilops ovata×Triticum durum case. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Delevoryas T. 1980. Polyploidy in gymnosperms. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 215218.
  • Devos KM, Brown JK, Bennetzen JL. 2002. Genome size reduction through illegitimate recombination counteracts genome expansion in Arabidopsis. Genome Research 12: 10751079.
  • Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Rauscher J, Brown AHD. 2004. Evolution of gene families and gene conversion in the Glycine polyploid complex. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Rauscher JT, Brown AHD. 2003. Diploid and polyploid reticulate evolution throughout the history of the perennial soybeans (Glycine subg. Glycine). New Phytologist (In press.)
  • Durbin ML, McCaig B, Clegg MT. 2000. Molecular evolution of the chalcone synthase multigene family in the morning glory genome. Plant Molecular Biology 42: 7992.
  • Ehrendorfer F. 1980. Polyploidy and distribution. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 4560.
  • Emms SK, Arnold ML. 1997. The effect of habitat on parental and hybrid fitness: transplant experiments with Louisiana irises. Evolution 51: 11121119.
  • Felber F. 1988. Phenologie de la floraison de populations diploides et tetraploides d’Anthoxanthum alpinum et d’Anthoxanthum odoratum. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 22582264.
  • Felber F. 1991. Establishment of a tetraploid cytotype in a diploid population: effect of relative fitness of the cytotypes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4: 195207.
  • Ferris SD. 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of catastomid fishes. In: Evolutionary genetics of fishes. Turner BJ, ed. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 5593.
  • Ferris SD, Whitt GS. 1977a. Duplicate gene expression in diploid and tetraploid loaches (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae). Biochemical Genetics 15: 10971112.
  • Ferris SD, Whitt GS. 1977b. Loss of duplicate gene expression after polyploidization. Nature 265: 258260.
  • Feschotte C, Jiang N, Wessler SR. 2002. Plant transposable elements: where genetics meets genomics. Nature Reviews: Genetics 3: 329341.
  • Fowler NL, Levin DA. 1984. Ecological constraints on the establishment of a novel polyploid in competition with its diploid progenitor. American Naturalist 124: 703711.
  • Frank AC, Amiri H, Andersson SGE. 2002. Genome deterioration: loss of repeated sequences and accumulation of junk DNA. Genetica 115: 112.
  • Franzke A, Mummenhoff K. 1999. Recent hybrid speciation in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) – conversion of nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences in statu nascendi. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98: 831834.
  • Gale MD, Devos KM. 1998. Plant comparative genetics after 10 years. Science 282: 656659.
  • Gandolfo MA, Nixon KC, Crepet WL. 2002. Triuridaceae fossil flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey. American Journal of Botany 89: 19401957.
  • Gandolfo M, Nixon KC, Crepet W, Stevenson D, Em F. 1998. Oldest know fossils of monocotyledons. Nature 394: 532533.
  • Gastony GJ. 1991. Gene silencing in a polyploid homosporous fern: paleopolyploidy revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88: 16021605.
  • Gaut BS, Doebley JF. 1997. DNA sequence evidence for the segmental allotetraploid origin of maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 68096814.
  • Gaut BS, Le Thierry d’Ennequin M, Peek AS, Sawkins MC. 2000.Maize as a model for the evolution of plant nuclear genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97: 70087015.
  • Goldblatt P. 1980. Polyploidy in angiosperms: Monocotyledons. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York: Plenum Press, 219239.
  • Gottlieb LD. 1977. Electrophoretic evidenc and plant systematics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 64: 161180.
  • Gottlieb LD. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Progress in Phytochemistry 7: 146.
  • Gottlieb LD. 1982. Conservation and duplication of isozymes in plants. Science 16: 373380.
  • Gottlieb LD, Ford VS. 1997. A recently silenced, duplicate PgiC locus in Clarkia. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 125132.
  • Graham MA, Marek LF, Shoemaker RC. 2002. Organization, expression and evolution of a disease resistance gene cluster in soybean. Genetics 162: 19611977.
  • Grant V. 1952. Cytogenetics of the hybrid Gilia millefoliata×achilleaefolia. I. Variations in meiosis and polyploidy rare as affected by nutritional and genetic conditions. Chromosoma 5: 372390.
  • Grant V. 1963. The origin of adaptations. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
  • Grant V. 1981. Plant speciation. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
  • Grant V. 2002. Frequency of spontaneous amphiploids in Gilia (Polemoniaceae) hybrids. American Journal of Botany 89: 11971202.
  • Gu X, Wang Y, Gu J. 2002. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution. Nature Genetics 31: 205209.
  • Hancock JM. 2002. Genome size and the accumulation of simple sequence repeats: implications of new data from genome sequencing projects. Genetica 115: 93103.
  • Hancock JF, Bringhurst RS. 1981. Evolution of California populations of diploid and octoploid Fragaria (Rosaceae): a comparison. American Journal of Botany 68: 15.
  • Harlan JR, DeWet JMJ. 1975. On Ö. Winge and a prayer: the origins of polyploidy. Botanical Review 41: 361390.
  • Harrison RG. 1986. Pattern and process in a narrow hybrid zone. Heredity 56: 337349.
  • Howard DJ. 1982. Speciation and coexistence in a group of closely related ground crickets. PhD thesis. New Haven, USA: Yale University.
  • Howard DJ. 1986. A zone of overlap and hybridization between two ground cricket species. Evolution 40: 3443.
  • Hughes AL. 1999. Phylogenies of developmentally important proteins do not support the hypothesis of two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrate history. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48: 565576.
  • Husband BC. 2004. The role of triploid hybrids in the evolutionary dynamics of mixed-ploidy populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Husband BC. 2000. Constraints on polyploid evolution: a test of the minority cytotype exclusion principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267: 217223.
  • Husband BC, Schemske DW, Burton TL, Goodwillie C. 2002. Pollen competition as a unilateral reproductive barrier between sympatric diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 25652571.
  • Kashkush K, Feldman M, Levy AA. 2002. Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthsized wheat allotetraploid. Genetics 160: 16511659.
  • Kashkush K, Feldman M, Levy AA. 2003. Transcriptional activation of retrotransposons alters the expression of adjacent genes in wheat. Nature Genetics 33: 102106.
  • Kellogg EA. 2003. It's all relative. Nature 422: 383384.
  • Khoshoo TN. 1959. Polyploidy in gymnosperms. Evolution 13: 2439.
  • Kirik A, Salomon S, Puchta H. 2000. Species-specific double-strand break repair and genome evolution in plants. EMBO Journal 19: 55625566.
  • Kochert G, Stocker HT, Gimenes M, Galgaro L, Lopes CR, Moore K. 1996. RFLP and cytogenetic evidence on the origin and evolution of allotetraploid domesticated peanut, Arachis hypogea (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany 83: 12821291.
  • Kovarik A, Matyasek R, Lim YK, Skalická K, Koukalova B. 2004. Concerted evolution of 18-5.8-26S rDNA repeats in Nicotiana allotetraploids. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Labrador M, Farre M, Utzet F, Fontdevila A. 1999. Interspecific hybridization increases transposition rates of Osvaldo. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 931937.
  • Lagercrantz U, Lydiate DJ. 1996. Comparative genome mapping in Brassica. Genetics 144: 19031910.
  • Lawton-Rauh A, Robichaux RH, Purugganan MD. 2003. Patterns of nucleotide variation in homoeologous regulatory genes in the allotetraploid Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae). Molecular Ecology 12: 13011313.
  • Lee H-S, Chen ZJ. 2001. Protein-coding genes are epigenetically regulated in Arabidopsis polyploids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 67536758.
  • Leipoldt M, Schmidtke J. 1982. Gene expression in phylogenetically polyploid organisms. In: DoverG, FlavellR, eds. Genome evolution. New York, USA: Academic Press, 219236.
  • Leitch IJ, Bennett MD. 2004. Genome downsizing in polyploid plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Leitch IJ, Bennett MD. 1997. Polyploidy in angiosperms. Trends in Plant Science 2: 470476.
  • Levin DA. 1983. Polyploidy and novelty in flowering plants. American Naturalist 122: 125.
  • Levin DA. 2001. Recurrent formation of species without ploidal change. Systematic Botany 26: 197204.
  • Levin DA. 2003. The cytoplasmic factor in plant speciation. Systematic Botany 28: 511.
  • Levy AA, Feldman M. 2002. The impact of polyploidy on grass genome evolution. Plant Physiology 130: 15871593.
  • Lewis WH. 1976. Temporal adaptation correlated with ploidy in Claytonia virginica. Systematic Botany 1: 340347.
  • Lewis WH. 1980a. Polyploidy in angiosperms: Dicotyledons. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 241268.
  • Lewis WH. 1980b. Polyploidy in species populations. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 103144.
  • Lewis WH, Suda Y. 1976. Diploids and polyploids from a single population: temporal variation. Journal of Heredity 67: 391393.
  • Lim KY, Kovarík A, Matyásek R, Bezdek M, Lichtenstein CP, Leitch AR. 2000. Gene conversion of ribosomal DNA in Nicotiana tabacum is associated with undermethylated, decondensed and probably active gene units. Chromosoma 109: 161172.
  • Lim KY, Matyasek R, Kovarik A, Leitch AR. 2004. Genome evolution in allotetraploid Nicotiana. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Little TJ, Hebert PDN. 1994. Abundant asexuality in tropical freshwater ostracodes. Heredity 73: 549555.
  • Liu B, Brubaker CL, Mergeai G, Cronn RC, Wendel JF. 2001. Polyploid formation in cotton is not accompanied by rapid genomic changes. Genome 44: 321330.
  • Liu B, Vega JM, Feldman M. 1998. Rapid genomic changes in newly synthesized amphiploids of Triticum and Aegilops. II. Changes in low-copy coding DNA sequences. Genome 41: 535542.
  • Liu B, Wendel JF. 2003. Epigenetic phenomena and the evolution of plant allopolyploids genome evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (In press.)
  • Löve A, Löve D. 1949. The geobotanical significance of polyploidy. I. Polyploidy and latitude. Portugaliae Acta Biologica. Series A. 273352.
  • Lukens LN, Quijada PA, Udall J, Pires JC, Schranz ME, Osborn TC. 2004. Genome redundancy and plasticity within ancient and recent Brassica crop species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Lumaret R. 1984. The role of polyploidy in the adaptive significance of polymorphism at the Got-1 locus in the Dactylis glomerata complex. Heredity 52: 153169.
  • Lumaret R, Borrill M. 1988. Cytology, genetics, and evolution in the genus Dactylis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 7: 5591.
  • Lumaret R, Guillerm J-L, Delay J. 1987. Ait Lhaj Loutfi A, May M Polyploidy and habitat differentiation in Dactylis glomerata L. from Galicia (Spain). Oecologia 73: 436446.
  • Lynch M, Conery JS. 2000. The evolutionary fate of duplicated genes. Science 290: 11511154.
  • Lynch M, Force A. 2000. The probability of duplicate gene preservation by subfunctionalization. Genetics 154: 459473.
  • Lysak MA, Pecinka A, Schubert I. 2003. Recent progress in chromosome painting of Arabidopsis and related species. Chromosome Research 11: 195204.
  • Madlung A, Masuelli R, Watson B, Reynolds S, Davison J, Comai L. 2002. Remodeling of DNA methylation and phenotypic and transcriptional changes in synthetic Arabidopsis allotetraploids. Plant Physiology 129: 733746.
  • Makalowski W. 2001. Are we polyploids? A brief history of one hypothesis. Genome Research 11: 667670.
  • Masterson J. 1994. Stomatal size in fossil plants: evidence for polyploidy in majority of angiosperms. Science 264: 421423.
  • Matzke MA, Gregor W, Mette MF, Aufsatz W, Kanno T, Jakowitsch J, Matzke JM. 2004. Endogenous paragretroviruses of polyploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its diploid progenitors, N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Matzke MA, Matzke AJM. 1998. Polyploidy and transposons. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 241.
  • Matzke MA, Scheid OM, Matzke AJ. 1999. Rapid structural and epigenetic changes in polyploid and aneuploid genomes. Bioessays 21: 761767.
  • Mavrodiev EV, Soltis DE. 2001. Recurring polyploid formation: an early account from the Russian literature. Taxon 50: 469474.
  • McLysaght A, Hokamp K, Wolfe KH. 2002. Extensive genomic duplication during early chordate evolution. Nature Genetics 31: 200204.
  • Melayah D, Lim KY, Bonnivard E, Chalhoub B, Dorlhac de Borne F, Mhiri C, Leitch AR, Grandbastien MA. 2004. Distribution of the Tnt1 retrotransposon family in the amphidiploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its wild Nicotiana relatives. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Mia MM, Mukherjee BB, Vickery RK. 1964. Chromosome counts in the section Simiolus of the genus Mimulus (Scrophulariaceae). VI. New numbers in M. guttatus, M. tigrinus and M. glabratus. Madroño 17: 156160.
  • Miller JS, Venable DL. 2000. Polyploidy and the evolution of gender dimorphism in plants. Science 289: 23352338.
  • Moore WS. 1977. An evaluation of narrow hybrid zones in vertebrates. Quarterly Review of Biology 52: 263277.
  • Muntzing A. 1936. The evolutionary significance of autopolyploidy. Hereditas 21: 263378.
  • Murad L, Lim KY, Christopodulou V, Matyasek R, Lichtenstein CP, Kovarik A, Leitch AR. 2002. The origin of tobacco's T genome is traced to a particular lineage within Nicotiana tomentosiformis (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 89: 921928.
  • Nuismer SL, Thompson JN. 2001. Plant polyploidy and non-uniform effects on insect herbivores. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268: 19371940.
  • Ohno S. 1970. Evolution by gene duplication. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
  • Orel N, Puchta H. 2003. Differences in the processing of DNA ends in Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco: possible implications for genome evolution. Plant Molecular Biology 51: 523531.
  • Osborn TC, Pires JC, Birchler JA, Auger DL, Chen ZJ, Lee H-S, Comai L, Madlung A, Doerge RW, Colot V, Martienssen RA. 2003. Understanding mechanisms of novel gene expression in polyploids. Trends in Genetics 19: 141147.
  • Otto SP, Whitton J. 2000. Polyploid incidence and evolution. Annual Review of Genetics 34: 401437.
  • Ownbey M. 1950. Natural hybridization and amphiploidy in the genus Tragopogon. American Journal of Botany 37: 487499.
  • Ownbey M, McCollum GD. 1953. Cytoplasmic inheritance and reciprocal amphiploidy in Tragopogon. American Journal of Botany 40: 788796.
  • Ozkan H, Levy AA, Feldman M. 2001. Allopolyploidy-induced rapid genome evolution in the wheat (Aegilops-Triticum) group. Plant Cell 13: 17351747.
  • Pannell JR, Obbard DJ, Bruggs RJA. 2004. Polyploidy and the sexual system: what can we learn from Mercurialis annua? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Petrov DA. 2001. Evolution of genome size: new approaches to an old problem. Trends in Genetics 17: 2328.
  • Petrov DA. 2002. DNA. loss and evolution of genome size in Drosophila. Genetica 115: 8191.
  • Pichersky E, Gang DR. 2000. Genetics and biochemistry of secondary metabolites in plants: an evolutionary perspective. Trends in Plant Science 5: 439445.
  • Pires JC, Zhao J, Schranz ME, Leon EJ, Quijada PA, Lukens LN, Osborn TC. 2004. Flowering time divergence and genomic rearrangements in resynthesized polyploids (Brassica). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Popp M, Oxelman B. 2001. Inferring the history of the polyploid Silene aegaea (Caryophyllaceae) using plastid and homoeologous nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 474481.
  • Ptacek MG, Gerhardt HC, Sage RD. 1994. Speciation by polyploidy in treefrogs: multiple origins of the tetraploid Hyla versicolor. Evolution 48: 898908.
  • Ramsey J, Schemske DW. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467501.
  • Ramsey J, Schemske DW. 2002. Neopolyploidy in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 589639.
  • Raybould AF, Gray AJ, Lawrence MJ, Marshall DF. 1991. The evolution of Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard (Gramineae): origin and genetic variability. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 43: 111126.
  • Rieseberg LH, Doyle JJ. 1989. Tetrasomic segregation in the naturally occurring autotetraploid Allium nevii alliance. Hereditas 111: 3136.
  • Rieseberg LH, Sinervo B, Linder R, Ungerer MC, Arias DM. 1996. Role of gene interactions in hybrid speciation: evidence from ancient and experimental hybrids. Science 272: 741745.
  • Rodriguez DJ. 1996. A model for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. American Naturalist 147: 3346.
  • Roose ML, Gottlieb LD. 1976. Genetic and biochemical consequences of polyploidy in Tragopogon. Evolution 30: 818830.
  • Rothera SL, Davy AJ. 1986. Polyploidy and habitat differentiation in Deschampsia cespitosa. New Phytologist 102: 449467.
  • Rozanova MA. 1938. On polymorphic type of species origin. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie Des Sciences de L’urrs 18: 677680.
  • Sang T. 2002. Utility of low-copy nuclear gene sequences in plant phylogenetics. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37: 121147.
  • Sang T, Pan J, Zhang D, Fergusson D, Wang C, Pan K-Y, Hong D-Y. 2004. Origins of polyploids: an example from peonies (Paeonia) and a model for angiosperms. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Sang T, Crawford DJ, Stuessy TF. 1995. Documentation of reticulate evolution in peonies (Paeonia) using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA: implications for biogeography and concerted evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 68136817.
  • Sato T, Maciera M, Lumaret R, Jacquard P. 1993. Flowering characteristics and fertility of interploidy progeny from normal and 2n gametes in Dactylis glomerata L. New Phytologist 124: 309319.
  • Segraves KA, Thompson JN. 1999. Plant polyploidy and pollination. Floral traits and insect visits to diploid and tetraploid Heuchera grossulariifolia. Evolution 53: 11141127.
  • Segraves KA, Thompson JN, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 1999. Multiple origins of polyploidy and the geographic structure of Heuchera grossulariifolia. Molecular Ecology 8: 253262.
  • Shaked H, Kashkush K, Ozkan H, Feldman M, Levy AA. 2001. Sequence elimination and cytosine methylation are rapid and reproducible responses of the genome to wide hybridization and allopolyploidy in wheat. Plant Cell 13: 17491759.
  • Shoemaker R, Olson T, Kanazin V. 1996. Soybean genome organization: evolution of a legume genome. In: GustafsonJP, FlavellRB, eds. Genomes of plants and animals: 21st stadler genetics symposium. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 139150.
  • Shore JS, Barrett SCH. 1987. Inheritance of floral and isozyme polymorphisms in Turnera ulmifolia L. Journal of Heredity 78: 4448.
  • Sidow A. 1996. General (ome) duplications in the evolution of early vertebrates. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 6: 715722.
  • Skalická K, Lim KY, Matyásek R, Koukalová B, Leitch AR, Kovarík A. 2002. Rapid evolution of parental rDNA in a synthetic tobacco allotetraploid line. Amerian Journal of Botany 90: 988996.
  • Small RL, Ryburn JA, Cronn RC, Seelanan T, Wendel JF. 1998. The tortoise and the hare. Choosing between noncoding plastome and nuclear Adh sequences for phylogeny reconstruction in a recently diverged plant group. American Journal of Botany 85: 13011315.
  • Small RL, Ryburn JA, Wendel JF. 1999. Low levels of nucleotide diversity at homoeologous Adh loci in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium L.). Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 491501.
  • Small RL, Wendel JF. 2000a. Copy number lability and evolutionary dynamics of the Adh gene family in diploid and tetraploid cotton (Gossypium). Genetics 155: 19131926.
  • Small RL, Wendel JF. 2000b. Phylogeny, duplication, and intraspecific variation of Adh sequences in New World diploid cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16: 7384.
  • Small RL, Wendel JF. 2002. Differential evolutionary dynamics of duplicated paralogous Adh loci in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium). Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 597607.
  • Smith-Huerta NL. 1984. Seed germination in related diploid and allotetraploid Clarkia species. Botanical Gazette 145: 246252.
  • Solbrig O. 1971. Polyphyletic origin of tetraploid populations of Gutierrezia sarothrae (Compositae). Madroño 21: 2025.
  • Soltis DE. 1984. Autopolyploidy in Tolmiea menziesii (Saxifragaceae). American Journal of Botany 71: 11711174.
  • Soltis DE, Rieseberg LH. 1986. Autopolyploidy in Tolmiea menziesii (Saxifragaceae): evidence from enzyme electrophoresis. American Journal of Botany 73: 310318.
  • Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 2000. The role of genetic and genomic attributes in the success of polyploids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97: 70517057.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1989. Genetic consequences of autopolyploidy in Tolmiea (Saxifragaceae). Evolution 43: 586594.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1990. Isozyme evidence for ancient polyploidy in primitive angiosperms. Systematic Botany 15: 328337.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1993. Molecular data and the dynamic nature of polyploidy. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 12: 243273.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1999. Polyploidy: Recurrent formation and genome evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 348352.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Ness BD. 1989. Chloroplast DNA variation and multiple origins of autopolyploidy in Heuchera micrantha (Saxifragaceae). Evolution 43: 650656.
  • Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Pires JC, Kovarik A, Tate JA. 2004. Recent and recurrent polyploidy in Tragopogon (Asteraceae). cytogenetic, genomic, and genetic comparisons. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Song K, Lu P, Tang K, Osborn TC. 1995. Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 77197723.
  • Spring J. 1997. Vertebrate evolution by interspecific hybridization: are we polyploid? FEBS Letters 400: 28.
  • Spring J. 2002. Genome duplication strikes back. Nature Genetics 31: 128129.
  • Stebbins GL. 1947. Types of polyploidy: their classification and significance. Advances in Genetics 1: 403429.
  • Stebbins GL. 1950. Variation and evolution in plants. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
  • Stebbins GL. 1959. The role of hybridization in evolution. Proceedings American Philosophical Society 103: 231251.
  • Stebbins GL. 1971. Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. London, UK: Addison-Wesley.
  • Stebbins GL. 1984. Polyploidy and the distribution of the arctic-alpine flora. new evidence and a new approach. Botanica Helvetica 94: 113.
  • Stebbins GL. 1985. Polyploidy, hybridization, and the invasion of new habitats. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72: 824832.
  • Stebbins GL, Dawe JC. 1987. Polyploidy and distribution in the European flora: a reappraisal. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 108: 343354.
  • Steen SW, Gielly L, Taberlet P, Brochmann C. 2000. Same parental species, but different taxa: molecular evidence for hybrid origins of the rare endemics Saxifraga opdalensis and S. svalbardensis (Saxifragaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 132: 153164.
  • Stephens SG. 1951. Possible significance of duplication in evolution. Advances in Genetics 4: 247265.
  • Tal M. 1980. Physiology of polyploids. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 6175.
  • Taylor JS, Van de Peer Y, Meyer A. 2001. Genome duplication, divergent resolution and speciation. Trends in Genetics 17: 299301.
  • Thompson JN, Cunningham BM, Segraves KA, Althoff DM, Wagner D. 1997. Plant polyploidy and insect/plant interactions. American Naturalist 150: 730743.
  • Thompson JD, Lumaret R. 1992. The evolutionary dynamics of polyploid plants: origins, establishment and persistence. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 302307.
  • Thompson JN, Nuismer SL, Merg K. 2004. Plant polyploidy and the evolutionary ecology of plant/animal interactions. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (In press.)
  • Tischler G. 1935. Die Bedeutung der Polyploidie fur die Verbreitung der Angiospermen, erlautert an den Arten Schleswig-Holstein, mit Ausblicken auf andere Florengebiete. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 67: 136.
  • Turgeon J, Hebert PDN. 1995. Genetic characterization of breeding systems, ploidy levels and species boundaries in Cypricercus (Ostracoda). Heredity 75: 561570.
  • Tyler B, Borrill M, Chorlton K. 1978. Studies in Festuca. X. Observations on germination and seedling cold tolerance in diploid Festuca pratensis and tetraploid F. pratensis var. alpennina in relation to their altitudinal distribution. Journal of Applied Ecology 15: 219226.
  • VanDijk P, Hartog M, VanDelden W. 1992. Single cytotype areas in autopolyploid Plantago media L. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 46: 315331.
  • Vicient CM, Suoniemi A, Anamtamat-Jonsson K, Tanskanen J, Beharav A, Nevo E, Schulman AH. 1999. Retrotransposon BARE-1 and its role in genome evolution in the genus Hordeum. Plant Cell 11: 17691784.
  • Vision TJ, Brown DG, Tanksley SD. 2000. The origins of genomic duplications in Arabidopsis. Science 290: 21142117.
  • Wagner WH Jr. 1980. Polyploidy in pteridophytes. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 199214.
  • Warner DA, Edwards GE. 1989. Effects of polyploidy on photosyntheteic rates, photosynthetic enzymes, content of DNA, chlorophyll, and sizes and numbers of photosynthetic cells in the C4 dicot Atriplex confertifolia. Plant Physiology 91: 11431151.
  • Waugh O’Neill RJ, O'Neill MJ, Marshall Graves JA. 1998. Undermethylation associated with retroelement activation and chromosome remodeling in an interspecific mammalian hybrid. Nature 393: 6872.
  • Wendel JF. 2000. Genome evolution in polyploids. Plant Molecular Biology 42: 225249.
  • Wendel JF, Schnabel A, Seelanan T. 1995. Bidirectional interlocus concerted evolution following allopolyploid speciation in cotton (Gossypium). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 280284.
  • Werth CR, Windham MD. 1991. A model for divergent, allopatric speciation of polyploid pteridophytes resulting from silencing of duplicate-gene expression. American Naturalist 137: 515526.
  • DeWet JMJ. 1980. Origins of polyploids. In: LewisWH, ed. Polyploidy: biological relevance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 315.
  • Wilson HD, Barber SD, Walters T. 1983. Loss of duplicate gene expression iin tetraploid Chenopodium. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 11: 713.
  • Winge Ö. 1917. The chromosomes: their number and general importance. In: JacksonRC, HauberD, eds. Polyploidy. Stroudsbery, PA, USA: Hutchinson Ross, 131275.
  • Winkler H. 1916. Über die experimentelle Erzeugung von Pflanzen mit abweichenden Chromosomenzahlen. Zeitschrift für Botanik 8: 417531.
  • Witter MS, Carr GD. 1988. Adaptive Radiation and Genetic Differentiation in the Hawaiian Silversword Alliance (Compositae: Madiinae). Evolution 42: 12781287.
  • Wolf PG, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 1989. Tetrasomic inheritance and chromosome pairing behaviour in the naturally occurring autotetraploid Heuchera grossulariifolia (Saxifragaceae). Genome 32: 655659.
  • Wolf PG, Soltis DE, Soltis PS. 1990. Chloroplast DNA and allozymic variation in diploid and autotetraploid Huechera grossulariifolia (Saxifragaceae). American Journal of Botany 77: 232244.
  • Wolfe KH. 2001. Yesterday's polyploidization and mystery of diploidization. Nature Reviews: Genetics 2: 333341.
  • Wolfe KH, Schields DC. 1997. Molecular evidence for an ancient duplication of the entire yeast genome. Nature 387: 708713.
  • Wolffe AP, Matzke MA. 1999. Epigenetics: regulation through repression. Science 286: 481486.
  • Zhao X-P, Si Y, Hanson RE, Crane CF, Price HJ, Stelly DM, Wendel JF, Paterson AH. 1998. Dispersed repetitive DNA has spread to new genomes since polyploid formation in cotton. Genome Research 8: 479492.
  • Zimmer EA, Martin SL, Beverley SM, Kan YW, Wilson AC. 1980. Rapid duplication and loss of genes coding for the alpha chains of hemoglobin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 77: 21582162.