• 1
    Brown MA. The physiology of pre-eclampsia. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995;22: 781791.
  • 2
    Ueland L, Novy MJ, Peterson EN, Metcalfe J. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. IV: The influence of gestational age on the maternal cardiovascular response to posture and exercise. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1969;104: 856864.
  • 3
    Pirani BBK, Campbell DM, MacGillivray I. Plasma volume in normal first pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1973;80: 884887.
  • 4
    Ginsburg J, Duncan SLB. Peripheral blood flow in normal pregnancy. Cardiovasc Res 1967;1: 132137.
  • 5
    Soffronoff EC, Kaufmann BM, Connaughton JF. Intravascular volume determinations and fetal outcome in hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977;127(1):49.
  • 6
    Gant NF, Daley GL, Chand S, Whalley PJ, MacDonald PC. A study of angiotensin II pressor response throughout the primigravid pregnancy. J Clin Invest 1973;52: 26822689.
  • 7
    Baylis C, Vallance PJT. Nitric oxide and blood pressure: effects of nitric oxide deficiency. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1996;5: 8088.
  • 8
    Anumba DOC, Robson SCR, Boys RJ, Ford GA. Nitric oxide activity in the peripheral vasculature during normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancy. Am J Physiol 1999;277: H848H854 Heart Circ Physiol 46 .
  • 9
    Ford GA, Robson SC, Mahdy ZA. Superficial hand vein responses to NG-monomethyl-l-arginine in post-partum and non-pregnant women. Clin Sci 1996;90: 493497.
  • 10
    Williams DJ, Vallance PJT, Neild GH, Spencer JAD, Imms FJ. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in human pregnancy. Am J Physiol 1997;272: H748H752.
  • 11
    Baylis C, Engels K. Adverse interactions between pregnancy and a new model of systemic hypertension produced by chronic blockade of endothelial derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the rat. Clin Exp Hypertens Pregnancy 1992;B11(2–3):117129.
  • 12
    Conrad KP, Kerchner LJ, Mosher MD. Plasma and 24-h NO(x) and cGMP during normal pregnancy and preeclampsia in women on a reduced NO(x) diet. Am J Physiol 1999;277(1 Pt 2):t-57.
  • 13
    Saudan PJ, Brown MA, Farrell T, Shaw L. Improved methods of assessing proteinuria in hypertensive pregnancy. Br Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104(10):11591164.
  • 14
    Brown MA, Hague WM, Higgins J. The detection, investigation and management of hypertension in pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;40: 139156.
  • 15
    Martin A, Brown MA, Bucci J, Whitworth JA. Measuring venous capacitance and blood flow in pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;37(3):335339.
  • 16
    Webb DJ. The pharmacology of human blood vessels in vivo. J Vasc Res 1995;32: 215.
  • 17
    Benjamin N, Calver A, Collier J, Robinson B, Vallance P, Webb D. Measuring forearm blood flow and interpreting the responses to drugs and mediators. Hypertension 1995;25: 918923.
  • 18
    Vallance P, Collier J, Moncada S. Effect of endothelium-derived nitric oxide on peripheral arteriolar tone in man. Lancet 1989;ii: 9971000.
  • 19
    Bowyer L, Brown MA, Jones M. Vascular reactivity in women of reproductive age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185(1):8896.
  • 20
    Cowder M, Hand D. Analysis of Repeated Measures. London : Chapman & Hall, 1993.
  • 21
    McCarthy AL, Woolfson RG, Raju SK, Poston L. Abnormal endothelial cell function of resistance arteries from women with preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168: 13231330.
  • 22
    Pascoal IF, Lindheimer MD, Nalbantian-Brandt C, Moawad AH, Umans JG. Contraction and relaxation abnormalities in resistance arteries from preeclamptic women. J Soc Gynecol Invest 1995;2: 157.
  • 23
    O'Kane KP, Webb DJ, Collier JG, Vallance PJ. Local l-NG-monomethyl-arginine attenuates the vasodilator action of bradykinin in the human forearm. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1994;38(4):311315.
  • 24
    Liao JK, Homcy CJ. The G protein of the Gαi and Gαq family couple the bradykinin receptor to the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. J Clin Invest 1993;92: 21682172.
  • 25
    Eneroth-Grimfors E, Lindblad LE, Westgren M, Ihrman-Sandahl C, Bevegard S. Noninvasive test of microvascular endothelial function in normal and hypertensive pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1993;100: 469471.
  • 26
    Davis KR, Ponnampalam J, Hayman R, Baker PN, Arukulmaran S, Donnelly R. Microvascular vasodilator response to acetylcholine is increased in women with pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108(6):610614.
  • 27
    August P, Lenz T, Ales KL, et al. Longitudinal study of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in hypertensive pregnant women deviations related to the development of superimposed preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163: 16121621.
  • 28
    Cockroft JR, Chowienczyk PJ, Benjamin N, Ritter JM. Preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1994;330: 10361040.
  • 29
    Anumba DOC, Ford GA, Boys RJ, Robson SC. Stimulated nitric oxide release and nitric oxide sensitivity in forearm arterial vasculature during normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181(6):14791484.
  • 30
    Kyle PM, Buckley RN, Kissane J, de Swiet M, Redman C. The angiotensin sensitivity test and low-dose aspirin are ineffective methods to predict and prevent hypertensive disorders in nulliparous pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173: 865872.
  • 31
    Baker PN, Broughton Pipkin F, Symonds EM. Comparative study of platelet angiotensin II binding and the angiotensin II sensitivity test as predictors of pregnancy-induce hypertension. Clin Sci 1992;83: 8995.
  • 32
    Dekker GA, Makovitz JW, Wallenburg HC. Prediction of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders by angiotensin II sensitivity and supine pressor test. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;97: 817821.
  • 33
    Morris JA, O'Grady JP, Hamilton CJ, Davidson EC. Vascular reactivity to angiotensin II infusion during gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1978;130: 379384.
  • 34
    Nakamura T, Ito M, Matsui K, Yoshimura T, Kawasaki N, Maeyama M. Significance of angiotensin sensitivity test for prediction of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67: 388394.
  • 35
    Oney T, Kaulhausen H. The value of the angiotensin sensitivity test in the early diagnosis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;142: 1720.
  • 36
    Baan J, Chang PC, Vermeij P, Pfaffendorf M, van Zwieten PA. Effects of angiotensin II and losartan in the forearm of patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1998;16: 12991305.
  • 37
    Laurent S, Lacolley P, Billaud E, Arcaro G, Safar M. Large and small forearm arteries of essential hypertensives are less reactive to angiotensin II than to noradrenaline. J Hypertens Suppl 1989;7(6):7677.
  • 38
    Bird IM, Zheng J, Cale JM, Magness RR. Pregnancy induces an increase in angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression in uterine but not systemic artery endothelium. Endocrinology 1997;138(1):490498.
  • 39
    Morgan T, Craven C, Ward K. Human spiral artery renin–angiotensin system. Hypertension 1998;32(4):683687.
  • 40
    Bosio PM, McKenna PJ, Conroy R, O'Helihy C. Maternal central hemodynamics in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;94: 978984.
  • 41
    Walsh SW. Progesterone and estradiol production by normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. Obstet Gynecol 1988;71: 222226.
  • 42
    Faxen M, Nasiell J, Lunell NO, Nisell H, Blanck A. Altered placental mRNA expression of the progesterone but not the estrogen receptor in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 1998;17(3):241249.
  • 43
    Dawood MY. Circulating maternal serum progesterone in high-risk pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125(6):832840.
  • 44
    Ding ZQ, Rowe J, Sinosich MJ, Saunders DM, Gallery ED. In-vitro secretion of prostanoids by placental villous cytotrophoblasts in pre-eclampsia. Placenta 1996;17(7):407411.