Abstract: An intronless DNA encoding the guinea pig H1 receptor was cloned from a genomic library using probes derived from the bovine H1 receptor. It encodes a protein of 488 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55,619 daltons compared with a size of 56–68 kDa for the photoaffinity-labeled receptor as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The protein displays a 66% homology with the bovine receptor. Stable expression of the H1 receptor, characterized by the appearance of [3H]mepyramine binding sites with a pharmacology similar to that of the native H1 receptor, was obtained following transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Southern blot analysis, using a variety of restriction enzymes, did not provide any evidence of multiple H1 isoreceptors. Northern blot analysis of a variety of guinea pig peripheral or cerebral tissues identified, in most cases, a single transcript of 3.3 kb, but also, in some tissues, a second transcript of 3.7 kb, possibly generated by the use of different promoter or polyadenylation sites or corresponding to a transcript from a distinct gene. In situ hybridization studies showed the highly contrasted cerebral expression of H1-receptor gene transcripts, which was compared with autoradiographic receptor localization. This allowed the identification of some major cell populations expressing the H1 receptor, e.g., Purkinje cells in cerebellum or pyramidal cells in the hippocampal complex.