Abstract: Cultured murine oligodendrocytes elaborate extensive membrane sheets that, unlike multilamellar myelin in vivo, allow the study of interactions between myelin proteins and cytoskeletal elements. This article describes the events that occur due to the interaction of specific antibodies with their respective antigens, myelin/oligodendrocyte-specific protein (MOSP) and myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), which are expressed uniquely by oligodendrocytes. After antibody binding, surface anti-MOSP:MOSP complexes redistribute over those cytoplasmic microtubular veins that have 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohydrolase colocalized along them. In contrast, surface anti-MOG-MOG complexes redistribute over internal myelin basic protein domains. Long-term anti-MOSP IgM exposure results in an apparent increase in number as well as thickness of microtubular structures in oligodendrocyte membrane sheets, whereas long-term anti-MOG exposure causes depolymerization of microtubular veins in membrane sheets. These data suggest that antibody binding to these two surface proteins elicits signals that have opposite effects on the cytoskeleton in oligodendroglial membrane sheets. Thus, it is possible that signals transduced via antibody binding may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting CNS myelin.