Abstract: The modulation by adenosine analogues and endogenous adenosine of the electrically evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) was compared in subslices of the three areas of the rat hippocampus (CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus). The mixed A1/A2 agonist 2-chloroadenosine (CADO; 2–10 µM) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the release of [3H]ACh from the three hippocampal areas, being more potent in the CA1 and CA3 areas than in the dentate gyrus. The inhibitory effect of CADO (5 µM) on [3H]ACh release was prevented by the A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; 50 nM) in the three hippocampal areas and was converted in an excitatory effect in the CA3 and dentate gyrus areas. The A2A agonist CGS-21680 (30 nM) produced a greater increase of the evoked release of [3H]ACh in the CA3 than in the dentate gyrus areas, whereas no consistent effect was found in the CA1 area or in the whole hippocampal slice. The excitatory effect of CGS-21680 (30 nM) in the CA3 area was prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (10 µM). Both adenosine deaminase (2 U/ml) and DPCPX (250 nM) increased the evoked release of [3H]ACh in the CA1 and CA3 areas but not in the dentate gyrus. The amplitude of the effect of DPCPX and adenosine deaminase was similar in the CA1 area, but in the CA3 area DPCPX produced a greater effect than adenosine deaminase. It is concluded that the electrically evoked release of [3H]ACh in the three areas of the rat hippocampus can be differentially modulated by adenosine. In the CA1 area, only A1 inhibitory receptors modulate ACh release, whereas in the CA3 area, both A2A excitatory and A1 inhibitory adenosine receptors modulate ACh release. In the dentate gyrus, both A1 inhibitory and A2A excitatory adenosine receptors are present, but endogenous adenosine does not activate them.