Abstract: Posttraumatic hypothermia reduces the extent of neuronal damage in remote cortical and subcortical structures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We evaluated whether excessive extracellular release of glutamate and generation of hydroxyl radicals are associated with remote traumatic injury, and whether posttraumatic hypothermia modulates these processes. Lateral fluid percussion was used to induce TBI in rats. The salicylate-trapping method was used in conjunction with microdialysis and HPLC to detect hydroxyl radicals by measurement of the stable adducts 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA). Extracellular glutamate was measured from the same samples. Following trauma, brain temperature was maintained for 3 h at either 37 or 30°C. Sham-trauma animals were treated in an identical manner. In the normothermic group, TBI induced significant elevations in 2,3-DHBA (3.3-fold, p < 0.01), 2,5-DHBA (2.5-fold, p < 0.01), and glutamate (2.8-fold, p < 0.01) compared with controls. The levels of 2,3-DHBA and glutamate remained high for approximately 1 h after trauma, whereas levels of 2,5-DHBA remained high for the entire sampling period (4 h). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between integrated 2,3-DHBA and glutamate concentrations (p < 0.05). Posttraumatic hypothermia resulted in suppression of both 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA elevations and glutamate release. The present data indicate that TBI is followed by prompt increases in both glutamate release and hydroxyl radical production from cortical regions adjacent to the impact site. The magnitude of glutamate release is correlated with the extent of the hydroxyl radical adduct, raising the possibility that the two responses are associated. Posttraumatic hypothermia blunts both responses, suggesting a mechanism by which hypothermia confers protection following TBI.