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2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-d-Glucose as a Functional Probe for NMR: The Unique Metabolism Beyond Its 6-Phosphate


Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Y. Kanazawa at Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-82, Japan.


Abstract: Epimeric conversion of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) to its 2-epimer 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-mannose (FDM) proved by 19F NMR has been shown to reflect the brain activity. To examine the feasibility of FDG as a new NMR probe for in vivo functional monitoring, we studied here the fundamental NMR properties of metabolites, spectral assignments, and reliability of NMR quantification. Metabolites confirmed in brain besides FDM-6-phosphate were as follows: FDG-1-phosphate, FDG-1,6-bisphosphate, FDM-1-phosphate, FDM-1,6-bisphosphate, and FDG and FDM derivatives of nucleotide diphosphate. NMR quantification of these metabolites was evaluated in comparison with the method of 18F-labeled FDG. In the NMR functional study using FDG, where a high dose is inevitable, the dose dependence of uptake was investigated. FDG uptake in mouse brain was shown to be in the range of interpretation using the biochemical parameters of enzymes for glucose uptake as long as a dose of <200 mg/kg was used.