Abstract: Changes in extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in the striatum of rats were examined by in vivo microdialysis after intraperitoneal injections of drugs. A dopamine D2 antagonist, sulpiride (20 mg/kg), and a muscarinic antagonist, atropine (3.5 mg/kg), increased ACh levels and decreased Ch levels. On the contrary, the D2 agonist (±)-2-(N-phenylethyl-N-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (N-434; 5 mg/kg) and an anesthetic, pentobarbital (50 mg/kg), decreased ACh levels and increased Ch levels. Perfusion of 10 µM hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a Ch uptake inhibitor, through the striatum induced a complete inhibition of ACh release and increased Ch levels in all drug-treated groups. The degree of relative increase in the level of Ch induced by HC-3 differed among the drug-pretreated groups; compared with the control group, the relative increase was larger in the sulpiride- and atropine-treated groups and smaller in the N-434 and pentobarbital-treated groups. Thus, we demonstrated reciprocal relations between extracellular concentrations of Ch and ACh after treatments by drugs. The data suggest that in the striatum, which is rich in cholinergic innervation, the extracellular Ch concentration is to a large extent determined by activity of the cholinergic transmission reflected in high-affinity choline uptake.