α2-Macroglobulin Complexes with and Mediates the Endocytosis of β-Amyloid Peptide via Cell Surface Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein

Authors

  • Masaaki Narita,

    Corresponding author
    1. Edward Mallinckrodt Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Biology, and Pharmacology, and
      Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. M. Narita at Department of Pediatrics, Box 8116, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children's Place, St. Louis, MO 63110, U.S.A.
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  • David M. Holtzman,

    1. Department of Neurology, Center of the Study of Nervous System Injury, and Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
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  • Alan L. Schwartz,

    1. Edward Mallinckrodt Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Biology, and Pharmacology, and
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  • Guojun Bu

    1. Edward Mallinckrodt Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Biology, and Pharmacology, and
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Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. M. Narita at Department of Pediatrics, Box 8116, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children's Place, St. Louis, MO 63110, U.S.A.

Abstract

Abstract: A primary histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain of afflicted individuals. However, Aβ is produced continuously as a soluble protein in healthy individuals where it is detected in serum and CSF, suggesting the existence of cellular clearance mechanisms that normally prevent its accumulation and aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ forms stable complexes with activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M), a physiological ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) that is abundantly expressed in the CNS. These α2M/125I-Aβ complexes are immunoreactive with both anti-Aβ and anti-α2M IgG and are stable under various pH conditions, sodium dodecyl sulfate, reducing agents, and boiling. We demonstrate that α2M/125I-Aβ complexes can be degraded by glioblastoma cells and fibroblasts via LRP, because degradation is partially inhibited by receptor-associated protein (RAP), an antagonist of ligand interactions with LRP. In contrast, the degradation of free 125I-Aβ is not inhibited by RAP and thus must be mediated via an LRP-independent pathway. These results suggest that LRP can function as a clearance receptor for Aβ via a physiological ligand.

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