Abstract : Growing evidence indicates the involvement of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the development of late-onset and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease, although its exact role remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) displays membrane-destabilizing properties and that only apoE2 and E3 isoforms inhibit these properties. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that the carboxy-terminal lipid-binding domain of apoE (e.g., residues 200-299) is responsible for the Aβ-binding activity of apoE and that this interaction involves pairs of apoE amphipathic α-helices. We further demonstrate that Aβ is able to inhibit the association of the C-terminal domain of apoE with lipids due to the formation of Aβ/apoE complexes resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. On the contrary, the amino-terminal receptor-binding domain of apoE (e.g., residues 129-169) is not able to form stable complexes with Aβ. These data extend our understanding of human apoE-dependent binding of Aβ by involving the C-terminal domain of apoE in the efficient formation of apoE/Aβ complex.