I would like to thank Ms. Ji-Yeon Lee and Mr. Xi Wen Liu for able technical assistance. This work was financially supported by research grant 961-0719-111-2 from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation, Korea.

  • 1
    Ames B.N., Shigenage M.K., Hagen T.M. (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90,79157922.
  • 2
    Baba A., Lee E., Ohta A., Tatsuno T., Iwata H. (1981) Activation of adenyl cyclase of rat brain by lipid peroxidation.J. Biol. Chem. 256,36793684.
  • 3
    Bagasra O., Michaels F.H., Zheng Y.M., Bobroski L.E., Spitsin S.V., Fu Z.F., Tawadros R., Koprowski H. (1995) Activation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92,1204112045.
  • 4
    Bongarzone E.R., Pasquini J.M., Soto E.F. (1995) Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids of brain myelin produced by in vivo generated reactive oxygen species.J. Neurosci. Res. 41,213221.
  • 5
    Brunel C. & Cathala G. (1973) Activation and inhibition processes of alkaline phosphatase from bovine brain by metal ions (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 309,104115.
  • 6
    Brunel C., Cathala G., Saintot M. (1969) Purification and properties of alkaline phosphatase from beef brain.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191,621635.
  • 7
    Cathala G., Brunel C., Chappelet-Tordo D., Lazdunski M. (1975) Bovine kidney alkaline phosphatase. Catalytic properties, subunit interactions in the catalytic process and mechanism of Mg2+ stimulation.J. Biol. Chem. 250,60406045.
  • 8
    Chia L.S., Thompson J.E., Moscarello M.A. (1983) Changes in lipid phase behaviour in human myelin during maturation and aging. Involvement of lipid peroxidation.FEBS Lett. 157,155158.
  • 9
    Dexter D.T., Wells F.R., Lees A.J., Agid F., Agid Y., Jenner P., Marsden C.D. (1989) Increased nigral iron content and alterations in other metal ions occurring in brain in Parkinson's disease.J. Neurochem.52,18301836.
  • 10
    Domańska-Janik K. & Bourre J.M. (1990) Effect of lipid peroxidation on Na2+, K+-ATPase, 5′-nucleotidase and CNPase in mouse brain myelin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1034,200206.
  • 11
    Drummond G.I. & Yamamoto M. (1971) Nucleotide phosphomonoesterases, inThe Enzymes,Vol. 4 (Boyer P. D., ed), pp. 355371. Academic Press, New York.
  • 12
    Good D.F., Werner P., Hsu A., Olanow C.W., Pert D.P. (1996) Evidence for neuronal oxidation damage in Alzheimer's disease.Am. J. Pathol.149,2128.
  • 13
    Hatch G. & Choy P.C. (1987) Phosphocholine phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase are different enzymes in hamster heart.Lipids 22,672676.
  • 14
    Hirsch E.C. (1993) Does oxidative stress participate in nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease ?Eur. Neurol.33 (Suppl. 1) , 5259.
  • 15
    Hodgson E.K. & Fridovich I. (1975) The interaction of bovine erythrocytes superoxide dismutase with hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the enzyme.Biochemistry 14,52945303.
  • 16
    Janeway C.M.L., Xu X., Murphy J.E., Chaidaroglou A., Kantrowitz E.R. (1993) Magnesium in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase is important for both structural stabilization and catalysis.Biochemistry 32,16011609.
  • 17
    Kanfer J.N. & McCartney D.G. (1986) Reduced phosphorylcholine hydrolysis by homogenates of temporal regions of Alzheimer's brain.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139,315319.
  • 18
    Kanfer J.N., Hattori H., Orihel D. (1986) Reduced phospholipase D activity in brain tissue samples from Alzheimer's disease patients.Ann. Neurol. 20,265.
  • 19
    Klunk W.E., Xu C., McClure R.J., Panchalingam K., Stanley J.A., Pettegrew J.W. (1997) Aggregation of β-amyloid peptide is promoted by membrane phospholipid metabolites elevated in Alzheimer's disease brain. J. Neurochem.69,266272.
  • 20
    Li H. & Chan W.W.S. (1981) Co-purification of type 1 alkaline phosphatase and type 1 phosphoprotein phosphatase from various animal tissues.Arch. Biochem. Biophys.207,270281.
  • 21
    Mickel H.S., Oliver C.N., Starke-Reed P.E. (1990) Protein oxidation and myelinolysis occur in brain following rapid correction of hyponatremia.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.172,9297.
  • 22
    Mordente A., Miggiano G.A.D., Martorana G.E., Meucci E., Santini S.A., Castelli A. (1987) Alkaline phosphatase inactivation by mixed function oxidation systems.Arch. Biochem. Biophys.258,176185.
  • 23
    Nitsch R.M., Blusztajn J.K., Pittas A.G., Slack B.E., Growdon J.H., Wurtman R.J. (1992) Evidence for a membrane defect in Alzheimer disease brain.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89,16711675.
  • 24
    Packer L. (1995) Oxidative stress, antioxidants, aging and disease, inOxidative Stress and Aging (Cutler R. G., Packer L., Bertram J., and Mori A., eds), pp. 114. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.
  • 25
    Pettegrew J.W., Panchalingam K., Moossy J., Martinez J., Rao G., Boller F. (1988) Correlation of phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and morphologic findings in Alzheimer's disease.Arch Neurol.45,10931096.
  • 26
    Smith C.D., Carney J.M., Starke-Reed P.E., Oliver C.N., Stadtman E.R., Floyd R.A., Markesbery W.R. (1991) Excess brain protein oxidation and enzyme dysfunction in normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88,1054010543.
  • 27
    Sok D. -E. (1998) Ascorbate-induced oxidative inactivation of Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase. J. Neurochem.70,11671174.
  • 28
    Sok D. & Kim M.R. (1992) Characterization of a Zn2+-requiring glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase possessing p-nitrophenylphosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity. Biochem. J. 286,435440.
  • 29
    Stadtman E.R. & Oliver C.N. (1991) Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins.J. Biol. Chem. 266,20052008.
  • 30
    Tapel A.L. (1973) Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components.Fed. Proc. 32,18701874.
  • 31
    Yim M.B., Chae H.Z., Rhee S.G., Chock P.B., Stadtman E.R. (1994) On the protective mechanism of the thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme against the oxidative damage of biomacromolecules.J. Biol. Chem. 269,16211626.
  • 32
    Yuan J. & Kanfer J.N. (1994) Purification and properties of a glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase from bovine brain myelin.Neurochem. Res. 19,4348.