• 1
    Acan N.L. & Tezcan E.F. (1989) Sheep brain glutathione reductase : purification and general properties.FEBS Lett. 250,7274.
  • 2
    Acan N.L. & Tezcan E.F. (1991) Kinetic properties of sheep brain glutathione reductase.Enzyme 45,121124.
  • 3
    Acan N.L. & Tezcan E.F. (1995) Inhibition kinetics of sheep brain glutathione reductase by cadmium ion.Biochem. Mol. Med. 54,3337.
  • 4
    Bains J.S. & Shaw C.A. (1997) Neurodegenerative disorders in humans : the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death.Brain Res. Rev. 25,335358.
  • 5
    Braquer N.Z., Hothersall J.S., McLean P. (1988) Function and regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway in brain.Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 29,265289.
  • 6
    Ben-Yoseph O., Boxer P.A., Ross B.D. (1994) Oxidative stress in the central nervous system : monitoring the metabolic response using the pentose phosphate pathway.Dev. Neurosci. 16,328336.
  • 7
    Ben-Yoseph O., Boxer P.A., Ross B.D. (1996) Assessment of the role of the glutathione and pentose phosphate pathways in the protection of primary cerebrocortical cultures from oxidative stress.J. Neurochem. 66,23292337.
  • 8
    Boggaram V., Larson K., Mannervik B. (1978) Characterization of glutathione reductase from porcine erythrocytes.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 527,337347.
  • 9
    Bowling A.C. & Beal M.F. (1995) Bioenergetic and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.Life Sci. 56,11511171.
  • 10
    Bradford M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.Anal. Biochem. 72,248254.
  • 11
    Carlberg I. & Mannervik B. (1981) Purification and characterization of glutathione reductase from calf liver. An improved procedure for affinity chromatography on 2′,5′-ADP-Sepharose 4B. Anal. Biochem. 116,531536.
  • 12
    Carlberg I. & Mannervik B. (1985) Glutathione reductase.Methods Enzymol. 113,484490.
  • 13
    Colton C.A. & Gilbert D.L. (1987) Production of superoxide anions by a CNS macrophage, the microglia.FEBS Lett. 223,284288.
  • 14
    Cooper A.J.L. (1997) Glutathione in the brain : disorders of glutathione metabolism, inThe Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological Disease (Rosenberg R. N., Prusiner S. B., DiMauro S., Barchi R. L., and Kunk L. M., eds), pp. 11951230. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
  • 15
    Copin J.C., Ledig M., Tholey G. (1992) Free radical scavenging systems of rat astroglial cells in primary culture : effects of anoxia and drug treatment.Neurochem. Res. 17,677682.
  • 16
    Deloulme J.C., Janet T., Au D., Storm D.R., Sensenbrenner M., Baudier J. (1990) Neuromodulin (GAP43) : a neuronal protein kinase C substrate is also present on O-2A glial cell lineage. Characterization of neuromodulin in secondary cultures of oligodendrocytes and comparison with the neuronal antigen.J. Cell Biol. 111,15591569.
  • 17
    Dringen R. & Hamprecht B. (1997) Involvement of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the disposal of exogenous hydrogen peroxide by cultured astroglial cells.Brain Res. 759,6775.
  • 18
    Dringen R., Kussmaul L., Hamprecht B. (1998) Rapid clearance of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide by cultured astroglial cells via oxidation of glutathione.Glia 23,139145.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199806)23:2<139::AID-GLIA5>3.3.CO;2-T
  • 19
    Dringen R., Kussmaul L., Gutterer J.M., Hirrlinger J., Hamprecht B. (1999) The glutathione system of peroxide detoxification is less efficient in neurons than in astroglial cells.J. Neurochem. 72,25232530.DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0722523.x
  • 20
    Gutterer J.M., Dringen R., Hamprecht B. (1997) Purification of glutathione reductase from bovine brain.Biol. Chem. 378,S139A.
  • 21
    Gutterer J.M., Hamprecht B., Dringen R. (1998) Generation of an antiserum against brain glutathione reductase : use for Western blots and immunocytochemistry.Biol. Chem. 379 (Suppl.) , S27.
  • 22
    Halliwell B. (1992) Reactive oxygen species and the central nervous system.J. Neurochem. 59,16091623.
  • 23
    Hamprecht B. & Dringen R. (1995) Energy metabolism, inNeuroglia (Kettenmann H. and Ransom B. R., eds), pp. 473487. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • 24
    Hamprecht B. & Löffler F. (1985) Primary glial cultures as a model system for studying hormone action.Methods Enzymol. 109,341345.
  • 25
    Hanes C.S. (1932) Studies on plant amylase. I. The effect of starch concentration upon the velocity of hydrolysis by the amylase of germinated barley.Biochem. J. 26,14061421.
  • 26
    Hotta S.S. (1962) Glucose metabolism in brain tissue : the hexose monophosphate shunt and its role in glutathione reduction.J. Neurochem. 9,4351.
  • 27
    Hotta S.S. & Seventko J.M.J r. (1968) The hexose monophosphate shunt and glutathione reduction in guinea pig brain tissue : changes caused by chlorpromazine, amytal, and malonate.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 123,104108.
  • 28
    Huang J. & Philbert M.A. (1995) Distribution of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in mitochondria and cytosol of cultured cerebellar astrocytes and granule cells.Brain Res. 680,1622.
  • 29
    Juurlink B.H.J. (1993) NADP-linked isozymes are the major forms of isocitrate dehydrogenase in mouse type-1-like astrocytes.Life Sci. 52,10871090.
  • 30
    Juurlink B.H.J. (1997) Response of glial cells to ischemia : roles of reactive oxygen species and glutathione.Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 21,151166.
  • 31
    Juurlink B.H.J., Thornburne S.K., Hertz L. (1998) Peroxidescavenging deficit underlies oligodendrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress.Glia 22,371378.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199804)22:4<371::AID-GLIA6>3.0.CO;2-6
  • 32
    Karplus P.A. & Schulz G.E. (1987) Refined structure of glutathione reductase at 1.54 ÅA resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 195,701729.
  • 33
    Knollema S., Hom H.W., Schirmer H., Korf J., Ter Horst G.J. (1996) Immunolocalization of glutathione reductase in the murine brain.J. Comp. Neurol. 373,157172.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960916)373:2<157::AID-CNE1>3.0.CO;2-2
  • 34
    Kurz G.M., Wiesinger H., Hamprecht B. (1993) Purification of cytosolic malic enzyme from bovine brain, generation of monoclonal antibodies, and immunocytochemical localization of the enzyme in glial cells of neural primary cultures.J. Neurochem. 60,14671474.
  • 35
    Laemmli U.K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4.Nature 227,680685.
  • 36
    Lindenau J., Noack H., Asayama K., Wolf G. (1998) Enhanced cellular glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity in activated astrocytes and in microglia during excitotoxin induced neurodegeneration.Glia 24,252256.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199810)24:2<252::AID-GLIA10>3.0.CO;2-Z
  • 37
    Löffler F., Lohmann S.M., Walckhoff B., Walter U., Hamprecht B. (1986) Immunocytochemical characterization of neuron-rich primary cultures of embryonic rat brain cells by established neuronal and glial markers and by monospecific antisera against cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin I.Brain Res. 363,205221.
  • 38
    Lopez-Barea J. & Lee C.Y. (1979) Mouse-liver glutathione reductase.Eur. J. Biochem. 98,487499.
  • 39
    Lopez-Barea J., Barcena J.A., Bocanegra J.A., Florindo J., Garcia-Alfonso C., Lopez-Ruiz A., Martinez-Galisteo E., Peinado J. (1990) Structure, mechanism, functions, and regulatory properties of glutathione reductase, inGlutathione : Metabolism and Physiological Functions (Vina J., ed), pp. 105116. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  • 40
    Loverde A.W. & Lehrer G.M. (1973) Subcellular distribution of isocitrate dehydrogenases in neonatal and adult mouse brain.J. Neurochem. 20,441448.
  • 41
    Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.J. Biol. Chem. 193,265275.
  • 42
    Makar T.K., Nedergaard M., Preuss A., Gelbard A.S., Perumal A.S., Cooper A.J.L. (1994) Vitamin E, ascorbate, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and enzymes of glutathione metabolism in cultures of chick astrocytes and neurons : evidence that astrocytes play an important role in antioxidative processes in the brain.J. Neurochem. 62,4553.
  • 43
    Meister A. & Anderson M.E. (1983) Glutathione.Annu. Rev. Biochem. 52,711760.
  • 44
    Ranscht B., Clapshaw P.A., Price J., Noble M., Seifert W. (1982) Development of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells studied with a monoclonal antibody against galactocerebroside.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79,27092713.
  • 45
    Reinhart P.H., Pfeiffer B., Spengler S., Hamprecht B. (1990) Purification of glycogen phosphorylase from bovine brain and immunocytochemical examination of rat glial primary cultures using monoclonal antibodies raised against this enzyme.J. Neurochem. 54,14741483.
  • 46
    Schirmer R.H., Krauth-Siegel R.L., Schulz G.E. (1989) Glutathione reductase, inGlutathione : Chemical, Biochemical and Medical Aspects—Part A (Dolphin D., Poulson R., and Avramovic O., eds), pp. 553595. Wiley, New York.
  • 47
    Tamura T., McMicken H.W., Smith C.V., Hansen T.N. (1997) Gene structure for mouse glutathione reductase, including a putative mitochondrial targeting signal.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 237,419422.
  • 48
    Tutic M., Lu X., Schirmer R.H., Werner D. (1990) Cloning and sequencing of mammalian glutathione reductase cDNA.Eur. J. Biochem. 188,523528.
  • 49
    Vogel R., Wiesinger H., Hamprecht B. (1997) Postnatal development of malic enzyme isoforms in rat brain, inNeurochemistry (Teelken A. W. and Korf J., eds), pp. 765769. Plenum Press, New York.
  • 50
    Vogel R., Jennemann G., Seitz J., Wiesinger H., Hamprecht B. (1998) Mitochondrial malic enzyme : purification from bovine brain, generation of an antiserum, and immunocytochemical localization in neurons of rat brain.J. Neurochem. 71,844852.
  • 51
    Williams C.H.J r. (1976) Flavin-containing dehydrogenases.Enzymes 13,89173.
  • 52
    Worthington D.J. & Rosemeyer M.A. (1976) Glutathione reductase from human erythrocytes. Catalytic properties and aggregation.Eur. J. Biochem. 67,231238.