• 1
    Angel P., Imagawa M., Chiu R., Stein B., Imbra R.J., Rahmsdorf H.J., Jonat C., Herrlich P., Karin M. (1987) Phorbol ester-inducible genes contain a common cis element recognized by a TPA-modulated trans-acting factor. Cell 49,729739.
  • 2
    Bhat N.R. & Zhang P. (1999) Hydrogen peroxide activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oligodendrocyte cell line : role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.J. Neurochem. 72,112119.
  • 3
    Blissman G., Menzies S., Beard J., Palmer C., Connor J. (1996) The expression of ferritin subunits and iron in oligodendrocytes in neonatal porcine brain.Dev. Neurosci. 18,274281.
  • 4
    Boccaccio G.L. & Steinman L. (1996) Multiple sclerosis : from a myelin point of view.J. Neurosci. Res. 45,647654.
  • 5
    Chomczynski P. & Sacchi N. (1987) Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.Anal. Biochem. 162,156159.
  • 6
    Clemens J.A., Stephenson D.T., Dixon E.P., Smalstig E.B., Mincy R.E., Rash K.S., Little S.P. (1997) Global ischemia activates nuclear factor κB prior to evidence of DNA fragmentation. Mol. Brain Res. 48,187196.
  • 7
    Connor J.R. & Menzies S.L. (1996) Relationship of iron to oligodendrocytes and myelination.Glia 17,8393.
  • 8
    Dragunow M. & Preston K. (1995) The role of transcription factors in apoptotic nerve cell death.Brain Res. Rev. 21,128.
  • 9
    Eilers A., Whitfield J., Babij C., Rubin L.L., Ham J. (1998) Role of the Jun kinase pathway in the regulation of c-jun expression and apoptosis in sympathetic neurons.J. Neurosci. 18,17131724.
  • 10
    Flohé L., Brigelius-Flohé R., Saliou C., Traber M.G., Packer L. (1997) Redox regulation of NF-kappa B activation.Free Radic. Biol. Med. 22,11151126.
  • 11
    Fort P., Marty L., Piechaczyk M., Sabrouty S.E., Dani C., Jeanteur P., Blanchard J.M. (1985) Various rat adult tissues express only one major mRNA species from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase multigenic family.Nucleic Acids Res. 13,14311442.
  • 12
    Galey J.P. (1997) Potential use of iron chelators against oxidative damage, inAntioxidants in Disease Mechanisms and Therapy (Sies H., ed), pp. 147203. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • 13
    Gass P. & Herdegen T. (1995) Neuronal expression of AP-1 proteins in excitotoxic neurodegenerative disorders and following nerve fiber lesions.Prog. Neurobiol. 47,257290.
  • 14
    Gillardon F., Lenz C., Waschke K.F., Krajewski S., Reed J.C., Zimmermann M., Kuschinsky W. (1996) Altered expression of bcl-2, bcl-X, and c-fos colocalizes with DNA fragmentation and ischemic cell damage following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.Mol. Brain Res. 40,254260.
  • 15
    Halliwell B. (1992) Reactive oxygen species and the central nervous system.J. Neurochem. 59,16091623.
  • 16
    Herdegen T., Skene P., Bähr M. (1997) The c-Jun transcription factor—bipotential mediator of neuronal death, survival and regeneration. Trends Neurosci. 20,227231.
  • 17
    Juurlink B.H.J., Thorburne S.K., Hertz L. (1998) Peroxidescavenging deficit underlies oligodendrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress.Glia 22,371378.
  • 18
    Kamme F. & Wieloch T. (1996) Induction of junD mRNA after transient forebrain ischemia in the rat. Effect of hypothermia.Mol. Brain Res. 43,5156.
  • 19
    Leist M. & Nicotera P. (1998) Apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and neuropathology.Exp. Cell Res. 239,183201.
  • 20
    Lezoualc'h F. & Behl C. (1998) Transcription factor NF-κB : friend or foe of neurons ? Mol. Psychiatry 3,1520.
  • 21
    Lipton S.A. (1997) Janus faces of NF-κB : neurodestruction versus neuroprotection. Nat. Med. 3,2022.
  • 22
    Luccinetti C.F., Brück W., Rodriguez M., Lassmann H. (1996) Distinct patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology indicates heterogeneity in pathogenesis.Brain Pathol. 6,259274.
  • 23
    Ludwin S.K. (1997) The pathobiology of the oligodendrocyte.J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 56,111124.
  • 24
    Martin G., Segui J., Diaz-Villoslada P., Montalbain X., Planas A.M., Ferrer I. (1996) Jun expression is found in neurons located in the vicinity of subacute plaques in patients with multiple sclerosis.Neurosci. Lett. 212,9598.
  • 25
    Mattson M.P., Goodman Y., Luo H., Fu W., Furukawa K. (1997) Activation of NF-κB protects hippocampal neurons against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis : evidence for induction of manganese superoxide dismutase and suppression of peroxynitrite production and protein tyrosine nitration. J. Neurosci. Res. 49,681697.
  • 26
    McCarthy K.D. & De Vellis J. (1989) Preparation of separate astroglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures from rat cerebral tissue.J. Cell Biol. 85,890902.
  • 27
    Nudel U., Zakut R., Shani M., Neumann S., Levy Z., Yaffe D. (1983) The nucleotide sequence of the rat cytoplasmic beta-actin gene.Nucleic Acids Res. 11,17591771.
  • 28
    O'Neill L.A.J. & Kaltschmidt C. (1997) NF-κB : a crucial transcription factor for glial and neuronal cell function. Trends Neurosci. 20,252258.
  • 29
    Page B., Page M., Noel C. (1993) A new fluorometric assay for cytotoxicity measurements in vitro.Int. J. Oncol. 3,473476.
  • 30
    Palombella V.J., Rando O.J., Goldberg A.L., Maniatis T. (1994) The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is required for processing the NF-κB1 precursor protein and the activation of NF-κB. Cell 78,773785.
  • 31
    Pedchenko T.V. & LeVine S.M. (1998) Desferrioxamine suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced by MBP in SJL mice.J. Neuroimmunol. 84,188197.
  • 32
    Pennypacker K. (1997) Transcription factors in brain injury.Histol. Histopathol. 12,11251133.
  • 33
    Piette J., Piret B., Bonizzi G., Schoonbroodt S., Merville M., Legrand-Poels S., Bours V. (1997) Multiple redox regulation in NF-κB transcription factor activation. Biol. Chem. 378,12371245.
  • 34
    Qi Y., Jamindar T.M., Dawson G. (1995) Hypoxia alters iron homeostasis and induces ferritin synthesis in oligodendrocytes.J. Neurochem. 64,24582464.
  • 35
    Raghupathi R. & McIntosh T.K. (1996) Regionally and temporally distinct patterns of induction of c-fos, c-jun and junB mRNAs following experimental brain injury in the rat.Mol. Brain Res. 37,134144.
  • 36
    Remacle J., Raes M., Toussaint O., Renard P., Rao G. (1995) Low levels of reactive oxygen species as modulators of cell function.Mutat. Res. 316,103122.
  • 37
    Richter-Landsberg C. & Heinrich M. (1995) S-100 immunoreactivity in rat brain glial cultures is associated with both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.J. Neurosci. Res. 42,657665.
  • 38
    Richter-Landsberg C. & Vollgraf U. (1998) Mode of cell injury and death after hydrogen peroxide exposure in cultured oligodendroglia cells.Exp. Cell Res. 244,218229.
  • 39
    Schäfer H., Zheng J., Gundlach F., Günther R., Schmidt W.E. (1996) PACAP stimulates transcription of c-fos and c-jun and activates the AP-1 transcription factor in rat pancreatic carcinoma cells.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221,111116.
  • 40
    Schreck R., Meier B., Männel D.L., Dröge W., Baeuerle P.A. (1992) Dithiocarbamates as potent inhibitors of nuclear factor κB activation in intact cells. J. Exp. Med. 175,11811194.
  • 41
    Schreiber J., Enderich J., Sock E., Schmidt C., Richter-Landsberg C., Wegner M. (1997) Redundancy of class III POU proteins in the oligodendrocyte lineage.J. Biol. Chem. 272,3228632293.
  • 42
    Sen C.K. & Packer L. (1996) Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription.FASEB J. 10,709720.
  • 43
    Tagliatela G., Robinson R., Perez-Polo J.R. (1997) Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activity induces nerve growth factor-resistant apoptosis in PC12 cells. J. Neurosci. Res. 47,155162.
  • 44
    Tan X., Sun X., Gonzalez-Crussi F.X., Gonzalez-Crussi F., Hsueh W. (1994) PAF and TNF increase the precursor of NF-kappa B p50 mRNA in mouse intestine : quantitative analysis by competitive PCR.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1215,157162.
  • 45
    Thorburne S.K. & Juurlink B.H.J. (1996) Low glutathione and high iron govern the susceptibility of oligodendroglial precursors to oxidative stress.J. Neurochem. 67,10141022.
  • 46
    Tong L., Toliver-Kinsky T., Taglialatela G., Werrbach-Perez K., Wood T., Perez-Polo J.R. (1998) Signal transduction in neuronal death.J. Neurochem. 71,447459.
  • 47
    Zhang P., Miller S.M., Rosenzweig S.A., Bhat N.R. (1996) Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase in primary glial cultures.J. Neurosci. Res. 46,114121.