SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Acknowledgements

We thank Geoff Williams for preparation of the figures. This work was supported by grants from The Wellcome Trust.

  • 1
    Bennett M.K. & Scheller R.H. (1993) The molecular machinery for secretion is conserved from yeast to neurons.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 25592563.
  • 2
    Bezprozvanny L., Scheller R.H., Tsien R.W. (1995) Functional impact of syntaxin on gating of N-type and Q-type calcium channels.Nature 378 623626.
  • 3
    Braun J.E.A. & Scheller R.H. (1995) Cysteine string protein, a DnaJ family member, is present on diverse secretory vesicles.Neuropharmacology 34 13611369.
  • 4
    Braun J.E.A., Wilbanks S.M., Scheller R.H. (1996) The cysteine string secretory vesicle protein activates Hsc70 ATPase.J. Biol. Chem. 271 2598925993.
  • 5
    Broadie K., Prokop A., Bellen H.J., O'Kane C.J., Schulze K.L., Sweeney S.T. (1995) Syntaxin and synaptobrevin function down-stream of vesicle docking in Drosophila. Neuron 15 663673.
  • 6
    Brown H., Larsson O., Branstrom R., Yang S., Leibiger B., Leibiger I., Fried G., Moede T., Deeney J.T., Brown G.R., Jacobsson G., Rhodes C.J., Braun J.E.A., Scheller R.H., Corkey B.E., Berggren P., Meister B. (1998) Cysteine string protein (CSP) is an insulin secretory granule-associated protein regulating β-cell exocytosis. EMBO J. 17 50485058.
  • 7
    Bukau B. & Horwich A.L. (1998) The Hsp70 and Hsp60 chaperone machines.Cell 92 351366.
  • 8
    Burgoyne R.D. & Morgan A. (1995) Ca2+ and secretory vesicle dynamics.Trends Neurosci. 18 191196.
  • 9
    Burgoyne R.D. & Morgan A. (1998) Analysis of regulated exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: insights into NSF/SNAP/SNARE function.Bioessays 20 328335.
  • 10
    Calakos N. & Scheller R.H. (1996) Synaptic vesicle biogenesis, docking and fusion, a molecular description.Physiol. Rev. 76 129.
  • 11
    Caplan A.J., Cyr D.M., Douglas M.G. (1993) Eukaryotic homologues of Escherichia coli dnaj: a diverse protein family that functions with hsp70 stress proteins.Mol. Biol. Cell 4 555563.
  • 12
    Chamberlain L.H. & Burgoyne R.D. (1996) Identification of a novel cysteine string protein variant and expression of cysteine string proteins in non-neuronal cells.J. Biol. Chem. 271 73207323.
  • 13
    Chamberlain L.H. & Burgoyne R.D. (1997a) Activation of the ATPase activity of heat-shock proteins Hsc70/Hsp70 by cysteine string protein.Biochem. J. 322 853858.
  • 14
    Chamberlain L.H. & Burgoyne R.D. (1997b) The molecular chaperone function of the secretory vesicle cysteine string proteins.J. Biol. Chem. 272 3142031426.
  • 15
    Chamberlain L.H. & Burgoyne R.D. (1998a) Cysteine string protein functions directly in regulated exocytosis.Mol. Biol. Cell 9 22592267.
  • 16
    Chamberlain L.H. & Burgoyne R.D. (1998b) The cysteine-string domain of the secretory vesicle cysteine-string protein is required for membrane targeting.Biochem. J. 335 205209.
  • 17
    Chamberlain L.H., Henry J., Burgoyne R.D. (1996) Cysteine string proteins are associated with chromaffin granules.J. Biol. Chem. 271 1951419517.
  • 18
    Chappell T.G., Welch W.J., Schlossman D.M., Palter K.B., Schlesinger M.J., Rothman J.E. (1986) Uncoating ATPase is a member of the 70 kilodalton family of stress proteins.Cell 45 313.
  • 19
    Cheetham M.E. & Caplan A.V. (1998) Structure, function and evolution of DnaJ: conservation and adaptation of chaperone function.Cell Stress Chaperones 3 2836.
  • 20
    Coorssen J.R., Schmitt H., Almers W. (1996) Ca2+ triggers massive exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells.EMBO J. 15 37873791.
  • 21
    Coppola T. & Gundersen C.B. (1996) Widespread expression of human cysteine string proteins.FEBS Lett. 391 269272.
  • 22
    Deitcher D.L., Ueda A., Stewart B.A., Burgess R.W., Kidokoro Y., Schwarz T.L. (1998) Distinct requirements for evoked and spontaneous release of neurotransmitter are revealed by mutations in the Drosophila gene neuronal-synaptobrevin.J. Neurosci. 18 20282039.
  • 23
    Eberle K.K., Zinsmaier K.E., Buchner S., Gruhn M., Jenni M., Arnold C., Leibold C., Reisch D., Walter N., Hafen E., Hofbauer A., Pflugfelder G.O., Buchner E. (1998) Wide distribution of the cysteine string proteins in Drosophila tissues revealed by targeted mutagenesis.Cell Tissue Res. 294 203217.
  • 24
    Fasshauer D., Otto H., Eliason W.K., Jahn R., Brunger A.T. (1997) Structural changes are associated with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor complex formation. J. Biol. Chem. 272 2803628041.
  • 25
    Fernandez-Chacon R. & Südhof T.C. (1999) Genetics of synaptic vesicle function: toward the complete functional anatomy of an organelle.Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61 753776.
  • 26
    Gonzalo S. & Linder M.E. (1998) SNAP-25 palmitoylation and plasma membrane targeting require a functional secretory pathway.Mol. Biol. Cell 9 585597.
  • 27
    Graham M.E. & Burgoyne R.D. (2000) Comparison of cysteine string protein (Csp) and mutant α-SNAP overexpression reveals a role for Csp in late steps of membrane fusion in dense-core granule exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. J. Neurosci. 20 12811289.
  • 28
    Gundersen C.B. & Umbach J.A. (1992) Suppression cloning of the cDNA for a candidate subunit of a presynaptic calcium channel.Neuron 9 527537.
  • 29
    Gundersen C.B., Mastrogiacomo A., Faull K., Umbach J.A. (1994) Extensive lipidation of a Torpedo cysteine string protein.J. Biol. Chem. 269 1919719199.
  • 30
    Gundersen C.B., Mastrogiacomo A., Umbach J.A. (1995) Cysteine-string proteins as templates for membrane fusion: models of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.J. Theor. Biol. 172 269277.
  • 31
    Hanson P.I., Heuser J.E., Jahn R. (1997) Neurotransmitter release—four years of SNARE complexes. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 7 310315.
  • 32
    Hartl F. -U. (1996) Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding.Nature 381 571580.
  • 33
    Hayashi T., McMahon H., Yamasaki S., Binz T., Hata Y., Südhof T.C., Niemann H. (1994) Synaptic vesicle membrane fusion complex: action of clostridial neurotoxins on assembly.EMBO J. 13 50515061.
  • 34
    Heckmann M., Adelsberger H., Dudel J. (1997) Evoked transmitter release at neuromuscular junctions in wild type and cysteine string protein null mutant larvae of Drosophila. Neurosci. Lett. 228 167170.
  • 35
    Kelley W.L. (1998) The J-domain family and the recruitment of chaperone power.Trends Biochem. Sci. 23 222227.
  • 36
    Kohan S.A., Pescatori M., Brecha N.C., Mastrogiacomo A., Umbach J.A., Gundersen C.B. (1995) Cysteine string protein immunoreactivity in the nervous system and adrenal gland of the rat.J. Neurosci. 15 62306238.
  • 37
    Kwon O.J., Kim C.M., Kim H., Chin H.M. (1996) Differential expression of the alternatively spliced variants of the rat cysteine string protein.Mol. Biol. Cell 7 2599.
  • 38
    Lang J. (1999) Molecular mechanisms and regulation of insulin exocytosis as a paradigm of endocrine secretion.Eur. J. Biochem. 259 317.
  • 39
    Leveque C., Pupier S., Marqueze B., Geslin L., Kataoka M., Takahashi M., De Waard M., Seagar M. (1998) Interaction of cysteine string proteins with the α1A subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel.J. Biol. Chem. 273 1348813492.
  • 40
    Littleton J.T., Chapman E.R., Kreber R., Garment M.B., Carbon S.D., Ganetzky B. (1998) Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations demonstrate that synaptic exocytosis requires SNARE complex assembly and disassembly.Neuron 21 401413.
  • 41
    Mastrogiacomo A. & Gundersen C.B. (1995) The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a rat cysteine string protein.Mol. Brain Res. 28 1218.
  • 42
    Mastrogiacomo A., Evans C.J., Gundersen C.B. (1994a) Antipeptide antibodies against a Torpedo cysteine-string protein.J. Neurochem. 62 873880.
  • 43
    Mastrogiacomo A., Parsons S.M., Zampighi G.A., Jenden D.J., Umbach J.A., Gundersen C.B. (1994b) Cysteine string proteins: a potential link between synaptic vesicles and presynaptic Ca2+ channels.Science 263 981982.
  • 44
    Mastrogiacomo A., Kohan S.A., Whitelegge J.P., Gundersen C.B. (1998a) Intrinsic membrane association of Drosophila cysteine string proteins.FEBS Lett 436 8591.
  • 45
    Mastrogiacomo A., Kornblum H.I., Umbach J.A., Gundersen C.B. (1998b) A Xenopus cysteine string protein with a cysteine residue in the J domain.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1401 239241.
  • 46
    Morales M., Ferrus A., Martinez-Padron M. (1999) Presynaptic calcium-currents in normal and csp mutant Drosophila peptidergic terminals.Eur. J. Neurosci. 11 18181826.
  • 47
    Nie Z., Ranjan R., Wenninger J.J., Hong S.N., Bronk P., Zinsmaier K.E. (1999) Overexpression of cysteine-string proteins in Drosophila reveals interactions with syntaxin.J. Neurosci. 19 1027010279.
  • 48
    Ninomiya Y., Kishimoto T., Miyashita Y., Kasai H. (1996) Ca2+ dependent exocytotic pathways in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts revealed by a caged Ca2+ compound.J. Biol. Chem. 271 1775117754.
  • 49
    Ohki R., Kawamata T., Katoh Y., Hosoda F., Ohki M. (1992) Escherichia coli dnaJ deletion mutation results in loss of stability of a positive regulator, CRP*. J. Biol. Chem. 267 1318013184.
  • 50
    Poage R.E., Meriney S.D., Gundersen C.B., Umbach J.A. (1999) Antibodies against cysteine string proteins inhibit evoked neurotransmitter release at Xenopus neuromuscular junctions.J. Neuro-Physiol. 82 5059.
  • 51
    Pupier S., Leveque C., Marqueze B., Kataoka M., Takahashi M., Saegar M. (1997) Cysteine string proteins are associated with secretory granules of the rat neurohypophysis.J. Neurosci. 17 27222727.
  • 52
    Ranjan R., Bronk P., Zinsmaier K.E. (1998) Cysteine string protein is required for calcium secretion coupling of evoked neurotransmission in Drosophila but not for vesicle recycling.J. Neurosci. 18 956964.
  • 53
    Rodriguez A., Webster P., Ortego J., Andrews N.W. (1997) Lysosomes behave as Ca2+ regulated exocytic vesicles in fibroblasts and epithelial cells.J. Cell Biol. 137 93104.
  • 54
    Rudiger S., Germeroth L., Schneider-Mergener J., Bukau B. (1997) Substrate specificity of the DnaK chaperone determined by screening cellulose-bound peptide libraries.EMBO J. 16 15011507.
  • 55
    Schiavo G., Benfenati F., Poulain B., Rossetto O., Polverino de Laureto P., DasGupta B.R., Montecucco C. (1992) Tetanus and botulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin.Nature 359 832835.
  • 56
    Sheng Z.H., Rettig J., Cook T., Catterall W.A. (1996) Calcium-dependent interaction of N-type calcium channels with the synaptic core complex.Nature 379 451454.
  • 57
    Silver P.A. & Way J.C. (1993) Eukaryotic DnaJ homologues and the specificity of Hsp70 activity.Cell 74 56.
  • 58
    Sollner T., Whiteheart S.W., Brunner M., Erdjument-Bromage H., Geromanos S., Tempst P., Rothman J.E. (1993) SNAP receptors implicated in vesicle targeting and fusion.Nature 362 318323.
  • 59
    Stahl B., Tobaben S., Südhof T.C. (1999) Two distinct domains in hsc70 are essential for the interaction with the synaptic vesicle cysteine string protein.Eur. J. Cell Biol. 78 375381.
  • 60
    Südhof T.C. (1995) The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.Nature 375 645653.
  • 61
    Südhof T.C. & Rizo J. (1996) Synaptotagmins: C2 domain proteins that regulate membrane traffic.Neuron 17 379388.
  • 62
    Sutton R.B., Fasshauer D., Jahn R., Brunger A.T. (1998) Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4A resolution.Nature 395 347353.
  • 63
    Sweeney S.T., Broadie K., Keane J., Niemann H., O'Kane C.J. (1995) Targeted expression of tetanus toxin light chain in Drosophila specifically eliminates synaptic transmission and causes behavioural defects.Neuron 14 341351.
  • 64
    Terada K., Kanazawa M., Bukau B., Mori M. (1997) The human DnaJ homologue dj2 facilitates mitochondrial protein import and luciferase refolding.J. Cell Biol. 139 10891095.
  • 65
    Umbach J.A. & Gundersen C.B. (1991) Suppression cloning of a cDNA fragment for a candidate presynaptic calcium channel.Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 635 443446.
  • 66
    Umbach J.A. & Gundersen C.B. (1997) Evidence that cysteine string proteins regulate an early step in the Ca2+-dependent secretion of neurotransmitter at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions.J. Neurosci. 17 72037209.
  • 67
    Umbach J.A., Zinsmaier K.E., Eberle K.K., Buchner E., Benzer S., Gundersen C.B. (1994) Presynaptic dysfunction in Drosophila csp null mutants.Neuron 13 899907.
  • 68
    Umbach J.A., Saitoe M., Kidokoro Y., Gundersen C.B. (1998) Attenuated influx of calcium ions at nerve endings of csp and shibire mutant Drosophila. J. Neurosci. 18 32333340.
  • 69
    Ungewickell E., Ungewickell H., Holstein S.H., Lindner R., Prasad K., Barouch W., Martin B., Greene L.E., Eisenberg E. (1995) Role of auxilin in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles.Nature 378 632635.
  • 70
    Van de Goor J. & Kelly R.B. (1996) Association of Drosophila cysteine string proteins with membranes.FEBS Lett. 380 251256.
  • 71
    Van de Goor J., Ramaswami M., Kelly R.B. (1995) Redistribution of synaptic vesicles and their proteins in temperature-sensitive shibirets1 mutant Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 57395743.
  • 72
    Walch-Solimena C., Blasi J., Edelmann L., Chapman E.R., Fischer von Mollard G., Jahn R. (1995) The t-SNAREs syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are present on organelles that participate in vesicle recycling.J. Cell Biol. 128 637645.
  • 73
    Weber T., Zemelman B.V., McNew J.A., Westermann B., Gmachl M., Parfiati F., Sollner T.H., Rothman J.E. (1998) SNARE pins: minimal machinery for membrane fusion.Cell 92 759772.
  • 74
    Wiser O., Bennett M.K., Atlas D. (1996) Functional interaction of syntaxin and SNAP-25 with voltage-sensitive L- and N-type Ca2+ channels.EMBO J. 15 41004110.
  • 75
    Wu M.N., Littleton J.T., Bhat M.A., Prokop A., Bellen H.J. (1998) ROP, the Drosophila Sec1 homolog, interacts with syntaxin and regulates neurotransmitter release in a dosage-dependent manner.EMBO J. 17 127139.
  • 76
    Wu M.N., Fergestad T., Lloyd T.E., He Y., Broadie K., Bellen H.J. (1999) Syntaxin 1A interacts with multiple exocytotic proteins to regulate neurotransmitter release in vivo.Neuron 23 593605.
  • 77
    Yoshihara M., Ueda A., Zhang D., Deitcher D.L., Schwarz T.L., Kidokoro Y. (1999) Selective effects of neuronal-synaptobrevin mutations on transmitter release evoked by sustained versus transient Ca2+ increases and by cAMP.J. Neurosci. 19 24322441.
  • 78
    Zhang H., Kelley W.L., Chamberlain L.H., Burgoyne R.D., Wollheim C.B., Lang J. (1998) Cysteine-string proteins regulate exocytosis of insulin independent from transmembrane ion fluxes.FEBS Lett. 437 267272.
  • 79
    Zhang H., Kelley W.L., Chamberlain L.H., Burgoyne R.D., Wollheim C.B., Lang J. (1999) Mutational analysis of cysteine-string protein function in insulin exocytosis.J. Cell Sci. 112 13451351.
  • 80
    Zinsmaier K.E., Hofbauer A., Heimbeck G., Pflugfelder G.O., Buchner S., Buchner E. (1990) A cysteine string protein is expressed in retina and brain of Drosophila. J. Neurogenet. 7 1529.
  • 81
    Zinsmaier K.E., Eberle K.K., Buchner E., Walter N., Benzer S. (1994) Paralysis and early death in cysteine string protein mutants in Drosophila. Science 263 977980.