SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Abbracchio M.P., Brambilla R., Ceruti S., Kim H.O., Von Lubitz D.K., Jacobson K.A., Cattabeni F. (1995) G protein-dependent activation of phospholipase C by adenosine A3 receptors in rat brain. Mol. Pharmacol. 48,10381045.
  • 2
    Alonso R., Poirier J., O'Donnell D., Buisson N., Diorio J., Boksa P., Quirion R. (1994) Statin, a marker of cell cycle arrest, is overexpressed during the early phase of delayed NMDA toxicity in hippocampal cell cultures. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 5 530539.DOI: 10.1006/mcne.1994.1065
  • 3
    Arteel G.E., Briviba K., Sies H. (1999) Protection against peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett. 445 226230.
  • 4
    Backhauss C., Karkoutly C., Welsch M., Krieglstein J. (1992) A mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia for screening neuroprotective drug effects. J. Pharmacol. Methods 27 2732.
  • 5
    Barth S.A., Inselmann G., Engemann R., Heidemann H.T. (1991) Influences of Ginkgo biloba on cyclosporin A induced lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes in comparison to vitamin E, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine. Biochem. Pharmacol. 41 15211526.
  • 6
    Bastianetto S., Ramassamy C., Christen Y., Poirier J., Quirion R. (1998) Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects in vitro rat hippocampal cells against toxicity induced by β-amyloid peptides. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 24 1456.
  • 7
    Bastianetto S., Ramassamy C., Poirier J., Quirion R. (1999) Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects hippocampal cells from oxidative stress-induced damage. Mol. Brain Res. 66 3541.
  • 8
    Bazan N.G. & Rodriguez de Turco E.B. (1993) Accumulation of lipid-derived second messengers during seizures and ischemia: decreased seizure-induced phospholipase C activation in the hippocampus by EGb 761, in Advances in Ginkgo biloba Extract Research. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) on the Central Nervous System (Christen Y., Costentin J., and Lacour M., eds), pp. 159169. Elsevier, Paris.
  • 9
    Behar-Cohen F.F., Heydolph S., Faure V., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Courtois Y., Goureau O. (1996) Peroxynitrite cytotoxicity on bovine retinal pigmented epithelial cells in culture. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 226 842849.
  • 10
    Bondy S.C. & Naderi S. (1994) The formation of reactive oxygen species in a fraction of rat brain by metabolism of nitric oxide. Neurosci. Lett. 168 3436.
  • 11
    Brorson J.R., Sulit R.A., Zhang H. (1997) Nitric oxide disrupts Ca2+ homeostasis in hippocampal neurons. J. Neurochem. 68 95105.
  • 12
    Cardell M., Bingren H., Wieloch T., Zivin J., Saitoh T. (1990) Protein kinase C is translocated to cell membranes during cerebral ischemia. Neurosci. Lett. 119 228232.
  • 13
    Crow J.P. & Beckman J.S. (1996) The importance of superoxide in nitric oxide-dependent toxicity: evidence for peroxynitrite-mediated injury. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 387 147161.
  • 14
    Dawson V.L. & Dawson T.M. (1996) Nitric oxide neurotoxicity. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 10 179190.
  • 15
    Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., London E.D., Bredt D.S., Snyder S.H. (1991) Nitric oxide mediates glutamate neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 63686371.
  • 16
    Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., Bartley D.A., Uhl G.R., Snyder S.H. (1993) Mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity in primary brain cultures. J. Neurosci. 13 26512661.
  • 17
    Denizot F. & Lang R. (1986) Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival. Modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability. J. Immunol. Methods 89 271277.
  • 18
    Doré S., Kar S., Quirion R. (1997) Insulin-like growth factor I protects and rescues hippocampal neurons against β-amyloid- and human amylin-induced toxicity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 47724777.
  • 19
    Draize J.H., Woodard G., Calvery H.O. (1944) Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 82 377390.
  • 20
    Drieu K. (1986) Preparation and definition of Ginkgo biloba extract. Presse Med. 15 14551457.
  • 21
    Droy-Lefaix M.T., Menerath J.M., Szabo-Tosaki E., Guillaumin D., Doly M. (1995) Protective effect of EGb 761 on ischemia-reperfusion damage in the rat retina. Transplant. Proc. 27 28612862.
  • 22
    Fautz R., Husein B., Hechenberger C. (1991) Application of the neutral red assay (NR assay) to monolayer cultures of primary hepatocytes: rapid colorimetric viability determination for the unscheduled DNA synthesis test (UDS). Mutat. Res. 253 173179.
  • 23
    Gardès-Albert M., Sekaki A., Ferradini C., Droy-Lefaix M.T. (1990) EGb 761 scavenger effect against OH and O2- free radicals. A γ-radiolysis study. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 9 190.
  • 24
    Gonzalez-Zulueta M., Ensz L.M., Mukhina G., Lebovitz R.M., Zwacka R.M., Engelhardt J.F., Oberley L.W., Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M. (1998) Manganese superoxide dismutase protects nNOS neurons from NMDA and nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity. J. Neurosci. 18 20402055.
  • 25
    Hara H., Onodera H., Kogure K. (1990) Protein kinase C activity in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia: morphological and autoradiographic analysis using [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Neurosci. Lett. 120 120123.
  • 26
    Hofferberth B. (1994) The efficacy of EGb 761 in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on different levels of investigation. Hum. Psycho-pharmacol. 9 215222.
  • 27
    Huang Z., Huang P.L., Panahian N., Dalkara T., Fishman M.C., Moskowitz M.A. (1994) Effects of cerebral ischemia in mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Science 265 18831885.
  • 28
    Hyman B.T., Van Hoesen G.W., Damasio A.R., Barnes C.L. (1984) Alzheimer’s disease: cell-specific pathology isolates the hippocampal formation. Science 225 11681170.
  • 29
    Iadecola C. (1997) Bright and dark sides of nitric oxide in ischemic brain injury. Trends Neurosci. 20 132139.
  • 30
    Karcher L., Zagermann P., Krieglstein J. (1984) Effect of an extract of Ginkgo biloba on rat brain energy metabolism in hypoxia. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 327 3135.
  • 31
    Kinouchi H., Epstein C.J., Mizui T., Carlson E., Chen S.F., Chan P.H. (1991) Attenuation of focal cerebral ischemic injury in transgenic mice overexpressing CuZn superoxide dismutase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 1115811162.
  • 32
    Kleijnen J. & Knipschild P. (1992) Ginkgo biloba. Lancet 340 11361139.
  • 33
    Klein J., Chatterjee S.S., Löffelholz K. (1995) Bilobalide: a new centrally acting phospholipase A2 inhibitor? Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 351 R86.
  • 34
    Klein J., Chatterjee S.S., Löffelholz K. (1997) Phospholipid breakdown and choline release under hypoxic conditions: inhibition by bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba. Brain Res. 755 347350.
  • 35
    Kramer R.M., Stephenson D.T., Roberts E.F., Clemens J.A. (1996) Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and lipid mediator release in the brain. J. Lipid Mediat. Cell Signal. 14 37.
  • 36
    Krieglstein J., Ausmeier F., El-Abhar H., Lippert K., Welsch M., Rupalla K., Henrich-Noack P. (1995) Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents. Eur. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. 3 3948.
  • 37
    Kuppusamy P., Ohnishi S.T., Numagami Y., Ohnishi T., Zweier J.L. (1995) Three-dimensional imaging of nitric oxide production in the rat brain subjected to ischemia-hypoxia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 15 899903.
  • 38
    Larsen R.G., Dupeyron J.P., Boulu R.G. (1978) Modèles d’ischémie cérébrale expérimentale par microsphères chez le rat. Etude de l’effet de deux extraits de Ginkgo biloba du naftidrofuryl. Therapie 33 651660.
  • 39
    Le Bars P., Katz M.M., Nancy B., Itil T.M., Freedman A.M., Schatzberg A.F. (1997) A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. JAMA 278 13271332.
  • 40
    Maiese K. (1998) From the bench to the bedside: the molecular management of cerebral ischemia. Clin. Neuropharmacol. 21 17.
  • 41
    Maiese K., Boniece I., DeMeo D., Wagner J.A. (1993a) Peptide growth factors protect against ischemia in culture by preventing nitric oxide toxicity. J. Neurosci. 13 30343040.
  • 42
    Maiese K., Boniece I., Skurat K., Wagner J.A. (1993b) Protein kinases modulate the sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to nitric oxide toxicity and anoxia. J. Neurosci. Res. 36 7787.
  • 43
    Maiese K., Wagner J.A., Boccone L. (1994) Nitric oxide: a down-stream mediator of calcium toxicity in the ischemic cascade. Neurosci. Lett. 166 4347.
  • 44
    Maiese K., TenBroeke M., Kue I. (1997) Neuroprotection of lubeluzole is mediated through the signal transduction pathways of nitric oxide. J. Neurochem. 68 710714.
  • 45
    Marcocci L., Maguire J.J., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Packer L. (1994a) The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 201 748755.DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1994.1764
  • 46
    Marcocci L., Packer L., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Sekaki A., Gardes-Albert M. (1994b) Antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Methods Enzymol. 234 462475.
  • 47
    Mattson M.P. (1997) Neuroprotective signal transduction: relevance to stroke. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 21 193206.
  • 48
    Mattson M.P., Barger S.W., Begley J.G., Mark R.J. (1995) Calcium, free radicals, and excitotoxic neuronal death in primary cell culture. Methods Cell Biol. 46 187216.
  • 49
    Maurer K., Ihl R., Dierks T., Frölich L. (1997) Clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in dementia of the Alzheimer type. J. Psychiatr. Res. 31 645655.
  • 50
    Meldrum B. & Garthwaite J. (1990) Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 11 379387.
  • 51
    Middleton E. & Kandaswamy C. (1993) The impact of plant flavonoids on mammalian biology: implications for immunity, inflammation and cancer, in The Flavonoids: Advances in Research Since 1986 (Harbone J. B., ed), pp. 619652. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • 52
    Oberpichler H., Beck T., Abdel-Rahman M.M., Bielenberg B.W., Krieglstein J. (1988) Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents related to protection against brain damage caused by hypoxia. Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 20 349368.
  • 53
    Oberpichler H., Sauer D., Rossberg C., Mennel H.D., Krieglstein J. (1990) PAF-antagonist ginkgolide B reduces postischemic neuronal damage in rat brain hippocampus. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 10 133135.
  • 54
    Oyama Y., Hayashi A., Ueha T. (1993) Ca2+-induced increase in oxidative metabolism of dissociated mammalian brain neurons: effect of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 61 367370.
  • 55
    Oyama Y., Fuchs P.A., Katayama N., Noda K. (1994) Myricetin and quercetin, the flavonoid constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract, greatly reduce oxidative metabolism in both resting and Ca2+-loaded brain neurons. Brain Res. 635 125129.
  • 56
    Oyama Y., Chikahisa L., Ueha T., Kanemaru K., Noda K. (1996) Ginkgo biloba extract protects brain neurons against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Brain Res. 712 349352.
  • 57
    Packer L., Haramaki N., Kawabata T., Marcocci L., Maitra I., Maguire J.J., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Sekaki A.H., Gardès-Albert M. (1995) Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): antioxidant action and prevention of oxidative stress-induced injury, in Advances in Ginkgo biloba Extract Research, Vol. 4: Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) on Aging and Age-Related Disorders (Christen Y., Courtois Y. and Droy-Lefaix M. T., eds), pp. 1747. Elsevier, Paris.
  • 58
    Panetta T., Marcheselli V.L., Braquet P., Spinnewyn B., Bazan N.G. (1987) Effects of a platelet activating factor antagonist (BN 52021) on free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, polyphosphoinositides and blood flow in the gerbil brain: inhibition of ischemia—reperfusion induced cerebral injury. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 149 580587.
  • 59
    Prehn J.H.M. & Krieglstein J. (1993) Platelet-activating factor antagonists reduce excitotoxic damage in cultured neurons from embryonic chick telencephalon and protect the rat hippocampus and neocortex from ischemic injury in vivo. J. Neurosci. Res. 34 179188.
  • 60
    Radi R., Beckman J.S., Bush K.M., Freeman B.A. (1991) Peroxynitrite induced membrane lipid peroxidation. The cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 288 481487.
  • 61
    Rai G.S., Sholvin C., Wesner K.A. (1991) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 12 350355.
  • 62
    Ramassamy C., Girbe F., Christen Y., Costentin J. (1993) Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 or trolox C prevents the ascorbic acid/Fe2+ induced decrease in membrane fluidity. Free Radic. Res. Commun. 19 341350.
  • 63
    Rodriguez de Turco E.B., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Bazan N.G. (1993) Decreased electroconvulsive shock-induced diacylglycerols and free fatty acid accumulation in the rat brain by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): selective effect in hippocampus as compared with cerebral cortex. J. Neurochem. 61 14381444.
  • 64
    Rogue P. & Malviya A.N. (1996) Inhibition of protein kinase C by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), in Advances in Ginkgo biloba Extract Research, Vol. 5: Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) on Neuronal Plasticity (Christen Y., Droy-Lefaix M. T., and Macias-Nuñez J. F., eds), pp. 16. Elsevier, Paris.
  • 65
    Schmidt-Kastner R. & Freund T.F. (1991) Selective vulnerability of the hippocampus in brain ischemia. Neuroscience 40 599636.
  • 66
    Seif-El-Nasr M. & El-Fattah A.A. (1995) Lipid peroxide, phospholipids, glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rat brain after ischaemia: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract. Pharmacol. Res. 32 273278.
  • 67
    Smith P.F., Maclennan K., Darlington C.L. (1996) The neuroprotective properties of the Ginkgo biloba leaf: a review of the possible relationship to platelet-activating factor (PAF). J. Ethnopharmacol. 50 131139.
  • 68
    Spinnewyn B., Blavet N., Clostre F. (1986) Effet de l’extrait de Ginkgo biloba sur un modèle d’ischémie cérébrale chez la gerbille. Presse Med. 15 15111515.
  • 69
    Szabo M.E., Droy-Lefaix M.T., Doly M. (1997) Direct measurement of free radicals in ischemic/reperfused diabetic rat retina. Clin. Neurosci. 4 240245.
  • 70
    Wesner K., Simmons D., Rook M., Simpson P. (1987) A double blind placebo-controlled trial of Tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 2 159169.
  • 71
    Zablocka B., Lukasiuk K., Lazarewicz J.W., Domanska-Janik K. (1995) Modulation of ischemic signal by antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate, nitric oxide synthase, and platelet-activating factor in gerbil hippocampus. J. Neurosci. Res. 40 233240.