Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc., Philadelphia
Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2002
Journal of Neurochemistry
Volume 75, Issue 3, pages 889–907, September 2000
How to Cite
Cartmell, J. and Schoepp, D. D. (2000), Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. Journal of Neurochemistry, 75: 889–907. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0750889.x
Abbreviations used: 1S,3R-ACPD, (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid; 1S,3S-ACPD, (1S,3S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid; t-ACPD, trans-(±)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid; AIDA, 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid; AMPA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate; 4-AP, 4-aminopyridine; L-AP3, L-(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid; L-AP4, L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid; 2R,4R-APDC, (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid; L-CCG-I, (2S,1′S,2′S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine; CCK, cholecystokinin; CCK-8, octapeptide CCK; 4CPG, 4-carboxyphenylglycine; DCG-IV, (2S,2′R,3′R)-2-(2′,3′-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine; DHPG, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; 5-HT, serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine; LY354740, (1S,2S,5R,6S)-(+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; LY379268, (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid; MCPG, α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine; mGlu, metabotropic glutamate; MPPG, α-methyl-4-phosphonophenyl-glycine; PAG, periaqueductal gray; PCP, phencyclidine; L-SOP, L-serine O-phosphate; TTX, tetrodotoxin; VDCC, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel.
- Issue online: 4 JAN 2002
- Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2002
- Metabotropic glutamate receptors;
- Synaptic transmission;
- Excitatory amino acids;
- Inhibitory amino acids;
Abstract: The G protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are differentially localized at various synapses throughout the brain. Depending on the receptor subtype, they appear to be localized at presynaptic and/or postsynaptic sites, including glial as well as neuronal elements. The heterogeneous distribution of these receptors on glutamate and nonglutamate neurons/cells thus allows modulation of synaptic transmission by a number of different mechanisms. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that the activation of mGlu receptors can modulate the activity of Ca2+ or K+ channels, or interfere with release processes downstream of Ca2+ entry, and consequently regulate neuronal synaptic activity. Such changes evoked by mGlu receptors can ultimately regulate transmitter release at both glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic synapses. Increasing neurochemical evidence has emerged, obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies, showing modulation of the release of a variety of transmitters by mGlu receptors. This review addresses the neurochemical evidence for mGlu receptor-mediated regulation of neurotransmitters, such as excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, monoamines, and neuropeptides.