SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Acknowledgements

A.A. is researcher of the “Unidad de Investigación,” Hospital Clínico Universitario, Salamanca (Spain). J.P.B. is funded by the C.I.C.Y.T. (SAF98-0127), F.E.D.E.R. (1FD97-1118), and Fundación Ramón Areces.

  • 1
    Almeida A., Heales S.J.R., Bolaños J.P., Medina J.M. (1998) Glutamate neurotoxicity is associated with nitric oxide-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and glutathione depletion.Brain Res. 790 209216.
  • 2
    Ankarcrona M., Dypbukt J.M., Bonfoco E., Zhivotovsky B., Orrenius S., Lipton S.A., Nicotera P. (1995) Glutamate-induced neuronal death: a succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function.Neuron 15 961973.
  • 3
    Bell G.I., Burant C.F., Takeda J., Gould G.W. (1993) Structure and function of mammalian facilitative sugar transporters.J. Biol. Chem. 268 1916119164.
  • 4
    Ben-Yoseph O., Boxer P.A., Ross B.D. (1996) Assessment of the role of the glutathione and pentose phosphate pathways in the protection of primary cerebrocortical cultures from oxidative stress.J. Neurochem. 66 23292337.
  • 5
    Bolaños J.P., Heales S.J.R., Land J.M., Clark J.B. (1995) Effect of peroxynitrite on the mitochondrial respiratory chain: differential susceptibility of neurones and astrocytes in primary cultures.J. Neurochem. 64 19651972.
  • 6
    Bolaños J.P., Almeida A., Stewart V., Peuchen V., Land J.M., Clark J.B., Heales S.J.R. (1997) Nitric oxide-mediated mitochondrial damage in the brain: mechanisms and implications for neurodegenerative diseases.J. Neurochem. 68 22272240.
  • 7
    Choi D.W. (1987) Ionic dependence of glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cell culture.J. Neurosci. 7 369379.
  • 8
    Clementi E., Brown G.C., Feelisch M., Moncada S. (1998) Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 76317636.
  • 9
    Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., London E.D., Bredt D.S., Snyder S.H. (1991) Nitric oxide mediates glutamate neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 63686371.
  • 10
    Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., Bartley D.A., Uhl G.R., Snyder S.H. (1993) Mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity in primary brain cultures.J. Neurosci. 13 26512661.
  • 11
    Dringen R. & Hamprecht B. (1996) Glutathione content as an indicator for the presence of metabolic pathways of amino acids in astroglial cultures.J. Neurochem. 67 13751382.
  • 12
    García-Nogales P., Almeida A., Fernández E., Medina J.M., Bolaños J.P. (1999) Induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by lipopolysaccharide contributes to preventing nitric oxide-mediated glutathione depletion and cultured rat astrocytes.J. Neurochem. 72 17501758.
  • 13
    Garthwaite J., Charles S.L., Chess-Williams R. (1988) Endothelium-derived relaxing factor release on activation of NMDA receptors suggests a role as intercellular messenger in the brain.Nature 336 385387.
  • 14
    Gutmann I. & Wahlefeld A.W. (1974) L-(+)-Lactate. Determination with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD, inMethods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol. 3 (Bergmeyer H. U., ed), pp. 14641468. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim.
  • 15
    King T.E. (1967) Preparation of succinate cytochrome c reductase and the cytochrome b-cl particle, and reconstitution of succinate cytochrome c reductase.Methods Enzymol. 10 216225.
  • 16
    Klingerberg M. (1985) NADH/NADPH. UV-methods, inMethods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol. 7 (Bergmeyer J. and Graß1 M., eds), pp. 251271. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim.
  • 17
    Koh J.Y. & Choi D.W. (1988) Vulnerability of cultured cortical neurons to damage by excitotoxins: differential susceptibility of neurons containing NADPH-diaphorase.J. Neurosci. 8 21532163.
  • 18
    Kussmaul L., Hamprecht B., Dringen R. (1999) The detoxification of cumene hydroperoxide by the glutathione system of cultured astroglial cells hinges on hexose availability for the regeneration of NADPH.J. Neurochem. 73 12461253.
  • 19
    Lafon-Cazal M., Pietri S., Culcasi M., Bockaert J. (1993) NMDA-dependent superoxide production and neurotoxicity.Nature 364 535537.
  • 20
    Lizasoain I., Moro M.A., Knowles R.G., Darley-Usmar V., Moncada S. (1996) Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite exert distinct effects on mitochondrial respiration which are differentially blocked by glutathione or glucose.Biochem. J. 314 877880.
  • 21
    Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.J. Biol. Chem. 193 265275.
  • 22
    Maher F., Vannucci S.J., Simpson I.A. (1994) Glucose transporter proteins in brain.FASEB J. 8 10031011.
  • 23
    Mailly F., Marin P., Israel M., Glowinski J., Premont J. (1999) Increase in external glutamate and NMDA receptor activation contribute to H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis. J. Neurochem. 73 11811188.
  • 24
    Murphy T.H., Miyamoto M., Sastre A., Schnaar R.L., Coyle J.T. (1989) Glutamate toxicity in a neuronal cell line involves inhibition of cystine transport leading to oxidative stress.Neuron 2 15471558.
  • 25
    Pauwels P.J., Opperdoes F.R., Trouet A. (1985) Effects of antimycin, glucose deprivation, and serum on cultures of neurons, astrocytes, and neuroblastoma cells.J. Neurochem. 44 143148.
  • 26
    Radi R., Beckman J.S., Bush K.M., Freeman B.A. (1991a) Peroxynitrite oxidation of sulfhydryls. The cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide.J. Biol. Chem. 266 42444250.
  • 27
    Radi R., Beckman J.S., Bush K.M., Freeman B.A. (1991b) Peroxynitrite-induced membrane lipid peroxidation: the cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 288 481487.
  • 28
    Ragan C.I., Wilson M.T., Darley-Usmar V.M., Lowe P.N. (1987) Subfractionation of mitochondria and isolation of the proteins of oxidative phosphorylation, inMitochondria. A Practical Approach (Darley-Usmar V. M., Rickwood D., and Wilson M. T., eds), pp. 79112. IRL Press, London.
  • 29
    Schulz J.B., Matthews R.T., Jenkins B.G., Ferrante R.J., Siwek D., Henshaw D.R., Cipolloni P.B., Mecocci P., Kowall N.W., Rosen B.R., Beal M.F. (1995) Blockade of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protects against excitotoxicityin vivo. J. Neurosci. 15 84198429.
  • 30
    Wharton D.C. & Tzagoloff A. (1967) Cytochrome oxidase from beef heart mitochondria.Methods Enzymol. 10 245250.
  • 31
    Wulff K. (1985) NADH/NADPH. Luminometric method, inMethods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol. 7 (Bergmeyer J. and Graß1 M., eds), pp. 280284. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim.
  • 32
    Zhang J., Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., Snyder S.H. (1994) Nitric oxide activation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase in neurotoxicity.Science 263 687689.