The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) signalling pathway is recognized as playing a central role in the survival of diverse cell types. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that is one of several known substrates of PKB. PKB phosphorylates GSK-3 in response to insulin and growth factors, which inhibits GSK-3 activity and leads to the modulation of multiple GSK-3 regulated cellular processes. We show that the novel potent and selective small-molecule inhibitors of GSK-3; SB-415286 and SB-216763, protect both central and peripheral nervous system neurones in culture from death induced by reduced PI 3-kinase pathway activity. The inhibition of neuronal death mediated by these compounds correlated with inhibition of GSK-3 activity and modulation of GSK-3 substrates tau and β-catenin. Thus, in addition to the previously assigned roles of GSK-3, our data provide clear pharmacological and biochemical evidence that selective inhibition of the endogenous pool of GSK-3 activity in primary neurones is sufficient to prevent death, implicating GSK-3 as a physiologically relevant principal regulatory target of the PI 3-kinase/PKB neuronal survival pathway.