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Keywords:

  • antioxidant responsive element;
  • NQO1;
  • oxidative stress;
  • primary cortical neuronal cultures;
  • tBHQ;
  • transgenic reporter mice

Abstract

Many phase II protective genes contain a cis-acting enhancer region known as the antioxidant response element (ARE). Increased expression of these genes contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Transgenic reporter mice were created that carry in their genome the core ARE coupled to the human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP) reporter gene. Primary cortical cultures derived from these mice were treated with tBHQ resulting in a dose-dependent increase in hPAP activity. Histochemical staining for hPAP activity was observed in both glia and neurons from tBHQ-treated cultures. The tBHQ-mediated increase in hPAP was not affected by the antioxidant glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHEE), whereas the increase in hPAP following DEM treatment was completely blocked by GSHEE. Pre-treatment of cultures with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY 294002 demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in tBHQ-induced hPAP activity. In addition, the tBHQ-mediated expression of ARE-driven genes in primary cortical cultures was blocked by LY 294002. Interestingly, basal expression of Nrf2 was also inhibited by LY 294002. We theorize that increased levels of genes controlled by the ARE are important for cellular protection against oxidative stress. These ARE-hPAP transgenic mice will be an important in vivo model for testing our hypothesis.