• Ahlgren-Beckendorf J. A., Reising A. M., Schander M. A., Herdler J. W. and Johnson J. A. (1999) Coordinate regulation of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-s-transferases and in primary cultures of rat neurons and glia: role of the antioxidant/electrophile responsive element. Glia 25, 131142.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(19990115)25:2<131::AID-GLIA4>3.3.CO;2-Y
  • Chan K. and Kan Y. W. (1999) Nrf2 is essential for protection against acute pulmonary injury in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1273112736.
  • Dinkova-Kostova A. T. and Talalay P. (2000) Persuasive evidence that quinone reductase type 1 (DT diaphorase) protects cells against the toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 29, 231240. Review.
  • Duffy S., So A. and Murphy T. H. (1998) Activation of endogenous antioxidant defenses in neuronal cells prevents free radical-mediated damage. J. Neurochem. 71, 6977.
  • Itoh K., Ishii T., Wakabayashi N. and Yamamoto M. (1999) Regulatory mechanisms of cellular response to oxidative stress. Free Radical Res. 31, 319324.
  • Kahl R., Weinke S. and Kappus H. (1989) Production of reactive oxygen species due to metabolic activation of butylated hydroxyanisole. Toxicology 59, 179194.
  • Laxton A. W., Sun M. C., Shen H., Murphy T. H. and Honey C. R. (2001) The antioxidant enzyme quinone reductase is up-regulated in vivo following cerebral ischemia. Neuroreport 12, 10451048.
  • Lee J. M., Hanson J. M., Chu W. A. and Johnson J. A. (2001b) Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, regulates activation of the antioxidant responsive element in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2001120016.
  • Lee J. M., Moehlenkamp J. D., Hanson J. M. and Johnson J. A. (2001a) Nrf2 dependent activation of the antioxidant responsive element by tert butylhydroquinone is independent of oxidative stress in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 280, 286292.
  • Li Y. and Jaiswal A. K. (1992) Regulation of human NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductasegene. Role of AP1 binding site contained within human antioxidant response element. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 1509715104.
  • Lind C., Cadenas E., Hochestein P. and Ernster L. (1990) DT-diaphorase: purification, properties, and function. Meth. Enzymol. 186, 287301.
  • Moehlenkamp J. D. and Johnson J. A. (1999) Activation of antioxidant/electrophile responsive elements in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 363, 98106.DOI: 10.1006/abbi.1998.1046
  • Moinova H. R. and Mulcahy R. T. (1998) An electrophile responsive element (EpRE) regulates beta-naphthoflavone induction of the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulatory subunit gene. Constitutive expression is mediated by an adjacent AP-1 site. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1468314689.
  • Moinova H. R. and Mulcahy R. T. (1999) Up-regulation of the human γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene involves binding of Nrf2 to an electrophile-responsive element. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 261, 661668.
  • Mulcahy R. T. and Gipp J. J. (1995) Identification of a putative antioxidant response element in the 5′-flanking region of the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 209, 227233.
  • Murphy T. H., De Long M. J. and Coyle J. T. (1991) Enhanced NAD(P)H: quinone reductase activity prevents glutamate toxicity produced by oxidative stress. J. Neurochem. 56, 990995.
  • Murphy T. H., Yu J., Ng R., Johnson D. A., Shen H., Honey C. R. and Johnson J. A. (2001) Preferential expression of antioxidant response element mediated gene expression in astrocytes. J. Neurochem. 76, 16701678.
  • Murphy T. H., So A. P. and Vincent S. R. (1998) Histochemical detection of quinone reductase activity in situ using LY 83583 reduction and oxidation. J. Neurochem. 70, 21562164.
  • Okubo T., Nagai F., Ushiyama K. and Kano I. (1997) Contribution of oxygen radicals to DNA cleavage by quinone compounds derived from phenolic antioxidants, tert butylhydroquinone and 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone. Toxicol. Lett. 90, 1118.
  • Prestera T., Talalay P., Alam J., Ahn Y. I., Lee P. J. and Choi A. M. (1995) Parallel induction of heme oxygenase-1 and chemoprotective phase 2 enzymes by electrophiles and antioxidants: regulation by upstream antioxidant-responsive elements (ARE). Mol. Med. 1, 827837.
  • Rushmore T. H. and Pickett C. B. (1990) Transcriptional regulation of the rat glutathione S transferase Ya subunit gene. Characterization of a xenobiotic responsive element controlling inducible expression by phenolic antioxidants. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1464814653.
  • Schultzberg M., Segura-Aguilar J. and Lind C. (1988) Distribution of DT diaphorase in the rat brain: biochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Neuroscience 27, 763776.
  • Tietze F. (1969) Enzymatic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal. Biochem. 27, 502522.
  • Venugopal R. and Jaiswal A. K. (1996) Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1496014965.
  • Wang Y., Santa-Cruz K., DeCarli C. and Johnson J. A. (2000) NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase activity is increased in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging 21, 525531.
  • Wild A. C., Moinova H. R. and Mulcahy R. T. (1999) Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene expression by the transcription factor Nrf2. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3362733636.