In order to investigate the genetic structure in an endangered Alpine plant (Eryngium alpinum L.), we developed microsatellites. Two different approaches were used: an enrichment protocol and the classical technique of hybridization on nylon membranes. We identified 25 loci, 13 of which revealed to be polymorphic. The polymorphism was rather low (2–6 alleles; HE = 0.49 ± 0.16), probably due to the short size of microsatellites (6–10 dinucleotide repeats) and to the fine spatial scale investigated. However, these markers are expected to provide a new insight about the genetic processes at work within and among E. alpinum populations.