Reticulitermes termites have such a cryptic life style and complex colony structure that polymorphic microsatellite markers are desired to investigate their population and colony structures. We successfully isolated seven microsatellite loci in R. speratus , the Japanese subterranean termite, five of which were polymorphic. These polymorphic loci had 2–8 alleles per locus and their observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.059 to 0.438. These five loci were also polymorphic in R . kanmonensis , distributed sympatrically with R. speratus in the Kanmon Region, western Japan; the number of alleles per locus was 2–5, and observed heterozygosity was 0.176–0.625.