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distruct: a program for the graphical display of population structure


  • Noah A. Rosenberg

    Corresponding author
    1. Program in Molecular and Computational Biology, 1042 W 36th Place, DRB 289, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089–1113, USA
      Noah A. Rosenberg. E-mail:
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In analysis of multilocus genotypes from structured populations, individual coefficients of membership in subpopulations are often estimated using programs such as structure. distruct provides a general method for visualizing these estimated membership coefficients. Subpopulations are represented as colours, and individuals are depicted as bars partitioned into coloured segments that correspond to membership coefficients in the subgroups. distruct, available at, can also be used to display subpopulation assignment probabilities when individuals are assumed to have ancestry in only one group.

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