Measurements (autokeratometry, A-scan ultrasonography and video ophthalmophakometry) of ocular surface radii, axial separations and alignment were made in the horizontal meridian of nine emmetropes (aged 20–38 years) with relaxed (cycloplegia) and active accommodation (mean ± 95% confidence interval: 3.7 ± 1.1 D). The anterior chamber depth (−1.5 ± 0.3 D) and both crystalline lens surfaces (front 3.1 ± 0.8 D; rear 2.1 ± 0.6 D) contributed to dioptric vergence changes that accompany accommodation. Accommodation did not alter ocular surface alignment. Ocular misalignment in relaxed eyes is mainly because of eye rotation (5.7 ± 1.6° temporally) with small amounts of lens tilt (0.2 ± 0.8° temporally) and decentration (0.1 ± 0.1 mm nasally) but these results must be viewed with caution as we did not account for corneal asymmetry. Comparison of calculated and empirically derived coefficients (upon which ocular surface alignment calculations depend) revealed that negligible inherent errors arose from neglect of ocular surface asphericity, lens gradient refractive index properties, surface astigmatism, effects of pupil size and centration, assumed eye rotation axis position and use of linear equations for analysing Purkinje image shifts.