• 1
    Hirai S. Vascular dementia and its prevention. In: Psychogeriatrics: Biochemical and Social Advance. Current Clinical Practice, Series 59, pp. 283237. Tokyo: Excerpta Medica; 1990.
  • 2
    Hachinski VC, Lassen NA, Marshall J. Multiinfarct dementia: a cause of mental deterioration in the elderly. Lancet 1974; 11: 207209.
  • 3
    Roman GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T et al. Vascular dementia: diagnosis criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN international workshop. Neurology 1993; 43: 250260.
  • 4
    Meyer JS, Rauch GM. Classification of subtypes of vascular dementia including subcortical versus cortical dementias. In: Meyer JS, Rauch GM, Lechner H, Loeb C (eds) Vascular dementia, pp. 203219. New York: Futura; 2001.
  • 5
    Hirai S. Dementia–Pathophysiology. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Reg Congr Internat Ass Gerontol pp. 3134; 1983.
  • 6
    American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-III-R), pp. 103109. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 1983.
  • 7
    Tanaka M, Hirai S, Kondo S et al. Cerebral hypoperfusion and hypometabolism with altered striatal signal intensity in chorea-acanthocytosis: a combined PET and MRI study. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 100107.
  • 8
    De Reuck J, Decoo D, Marchau M, Santens P, Lemahieu I, Strijckmans K. Positron emission tomography in vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci 1998; 154: 5561.
  • 9
    Nagata K, Maruya H, Yuya H et al. Can PET data differentiate Alzheimer's disease from vascular dementia? Ann NY Acad Sci 2000; 903: 252261.
  • 10
    Kondo S. A study of cerebral circulation, metabolism and MRI findings in patients with chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency. Kitakanto Igaku 1995; 45: 489502 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  • 11
    Kondo S, Tanaka M, Okamoto K. PET findings of asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Clin Neurosci 1999; 17: 182184 (in Japanese).
  • 12
    Kobayashi S, Okada K, Yamashita K. Incidence of silent lacunar lesion in normal adults and its relation to cerebral blood flow and risk factors. Stroke 1991; 22: 13791383.
  • 13
    Isaka Y, Iiji O, Ashida K, Imaizumi M. Cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic individuals: relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors and magnetic resonance imaging signal abnormalities. Jpn Circ J 1993; 57: 283290.
  • 14
    Tanaka M, Okamoto K, Hirai S. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in vascular dementia evaluated by positron emission tomography. Importance of frontal lobe hypoperfusion and hypometabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002; 977: 135140.
  • 15
    Rogers RL, Meyer JS, Mortel KF, Mahurin RK, Judd BW. Decreased cerebral blood flow precedes multi-infarct dementia, but follows senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Neurology 1986; 36: 16.